This is the physical examination of the abdomen to identify signs of disease; it is done in four stages, i.e., inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation.
Erfan Hospital is a private specialty and subspecialty hospital established on 03.03.2007, to provide advanced health, treatment and medical services based on human values and dignity. This hospital, enjoys 180 active beds ordered in one-bed and two-bed rooms and the intensive care units. It is constructed in a site with an area of 4480 square meter with 20,000 square meter of constructed area in 9 floors. Erfan is one of the best equipped hospitals in Iran, established in accordance with the latest hospital standards, and designed and constructed as a general hospital, enjoying well equipped operation rooms for all specialty and subspecialty fields. The presence of prominent professors, experienced doctors and committed personnel, has made this hospital the best private hospital in Iran in the hearts and minds of the patients.
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Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Closure
An ASD is a congenital heart defect in the atrial septum that results in leakage oxygen-rich blood from left atrium to the right atrium. This increases the work of workload of the right side of the heart and if not corrected early can lead to heart failure. The defect if small can be corrected by cardiac catheterization usually by a pediatric cardiologist. A large defect often needs open heart procedures.
This is the systematic examination of a patient’s cardiovascular system with the aim of diagnosing cardiovascular problems. The assessment encompasses taking a comprehensive history of a patient, carrying out a thorough physical examination of a patient and finally doing investigations such as electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, central venous pressure, etc.
It is a type of cardiac catheterization procedure. It is performed for both interventional and diagnostic purposes. In this procedure, a dye that is radiopaque is injected into the blood vessels of one’s heart. An X-ray machine is then used to take serial images (angiograms) that give a picture of how the blood vessels are. Based on the finding, an interventional cardiologist will open the clogged vessels (angioplasty).
Also known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) Thais is a procedure that is used to widen narrowed or blocked coronary arteries. The procedure is carried out by an interventional cardiologist. When combined with stenting, it is referred to as percutaneous coronary intervention. Is should be done within thirty minutes to 2 hours after a having a cardiac event.
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery
Also referred to as colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery or coronary artery bypass surgery. It is an operation done restore normal blood flow to obstructed coronary vessels hence used to manage coronary heart disease. The surgery has two main approaches, i.e., diversion of the internal thoracic artery to the left anterior descending artery in the left coronary vessel and using the great saphenous vein to create a connection between the aorta or its branch to the obstructed artery distance to the obstruction.
This is a hospital checkup and review by a qualified cardiologist. It involves patient assessment, treatment planning, diagnosis and cardiac interventions.
This is a cardiothoracic operation that involves the replacement of a composite graft of the aortic root, ascending aorta and the aortic valve with implantation of coronary arteries into the graft.
This is a painless imaging modality that uses x-rays to take detailed images of one’s heart and its blood vessels. It may or may not be done with intravenous contrast agents. The modern multidetector CT (MDCT) is highly sensitive.
Atrioventricular Fistula Treatment
This is a procedure used to correct abnormal connections between the atria and ventricles of one's heart. The surgery requires the deformity be repaired to ensure that the correct flow of blood in one’s heart is achieved.
Aortic Valve Repair
This is a procedure done to repair or replace aortic valves damaged by disease. Aortic valves are one of the four heart valves that help regulate the flow of blood in the heart. The surgeon will remove the damaged valves and replace them with a prosthetic one which is then screwed into place. The valves can be mechanical (made of artificial materials like carbon) or biological, i.e., from animal or human tissue.
Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD) Treatment
Atrioventricular Septal Defect is a congenital malformation of the heart that allows the mixing of blood from the right and left sides of the heart. It can be due to the absence of the persistence of fetal interatrial foramen or the complete absence of part or whole of the septum. The management of the condition is surgical.
Aortopulmonary Window Repair
Aortopulmonary Window is a rare defect of the heart in which there is a hole connecting the aorta and the pulmonary artery abs a result failure of the conotructal ridges to fuse. As spontaneous closure does not occur, once a diagnosis is made, Aortopulmonary Window Repair surgery is the only solution.
24 Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring
This allows a patient’s blood pressure to be measured at regular intervals (20-30 minutes) over a 24 hour period, whether the patient is asleep or awake. The BP will be measure as one goes about the activities of his daily life. It helps to detect masked hypertension, sustained hypertension and white coat hypertensions. It is also good in situations like BP change due to medication, pregnancy related hypertension, borderline hypertension, fainting episodes and when it is difficult to control BP with drugs.
Heart Transplant surgery is done to replace a damaged heart with a healthy, working heart that is taken from an ‘organ donor’ who has recently died. However, in very rare cases, the diseased heart is kept in its place to support the donated heart, instead of being removed. Heart transplant is used as a last resort when all the other cardiac treatments fail to improve the health of the patient.
Minimally Invasive (Key hole) Bypass Surgery
Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass is a surgical treatment for coronary heart disease that is a less invasive method of coronary artery bypass surgery, without the need to opening chest.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)
An enlargement of the aorta, the main blood vessel that delivers blood to the body, at the level of the abdomen. An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) can be life-threatening if it bursts. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are most common in older men and smokers.
Radio frequency (RF) Ablation heart rhythm correction
Catheter ablation is a procedure that uses radiofrequency energy (similar to microwave heat) to destroy a small area of heart tissue that is causing rapid and irregular heartbeats. Destroying this tissue helps restore your heart's regular rhythm.
Permanent Pacemaker Implant (Double Chamber)
A pacemaker is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart. A pacemaker consists of a small, battery-powered generator and one or more leads. In a single-chamber system, one lead is used, most commonly pacing the right ventricle. Dual-chamber pacemakers have two leads, placed in the right atrium and right ventricle.
Permanent Pacemaker Implant (Single Chamber)
A pacemaker is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart. Single-chamber pacemaker - With this device, 1 pacing lead is implanted in the right atrium or ventricle.
Mitral & Aortic Valve Replacement (AVR MVR)
Valve replacement surgery is the replacement of one or more of the heart valves with either an artificial heart valve or a bioprosthesis. It is an alternative to valve repair.
Minimally Invasive Valve Replacement (AVR MVR)
Valve replacement surgery is the replacement of one or more of the heart valves with either an artificial heart valve or a bioprosthesis. It is an alternative to valve repair. Benefits of minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) have been well recognized when compared with a standard median sternotomy, in terms of blood loss reduction, lower morbidity, shorter intensive care unit and in-hospital stay.
Double valve replacement (DVR including two valves)
A double valve replacement is a replacement of both the mitral and the aortic valve, or the entire left side of the heart. This type of surgery is not as common as the others and the mortality rate is slightly higher.
These are a surgical procedure where bone flaps are temporarily removed from the skull to give access to the brain. The bone flaps are created by specialized tools. Sometimes it’s done under the guidance of CT scans or MRI scans to localize the areas of treatment (stereotactic Craniotomy). A craniotomy is used in stereotactic biopsy of the brain, stereotactic radiosurgery & stereotactic aspiration of hematomas, cysts or abscesses. A craniotomy is also useful in aneurysmal clipping and removal of brain tumors. Are of various types, i.e., translabarynthine Craniotomy, retro-sigmoid Craniotomy, extended bifrontal Craniotomy and supra-orbital Craniotomy.
Peripheral Nerve Surgery
This is practiced by surgeons from various backgrounds with expertise in plastic and reconstructive surgery, neurology, pain medicine, and orthopedics hence the need for a multidisciplinary care. The surgeries included entrapment neuropathies, nerve sheath tumors like schwannomas and acute nerve injuries.
Subdural Hematoma (SDH) Surgery
SDH is an intracranial hemorrhage that takes place beneath the meningeal Dura matter and may be associated with other traumatic brain injuries. They can be spontaneous, iatrogenic like from lumbar punctures or traumatic. SDH can be acute or chronic. SDH surgery involves a craniotomy to decompress brain tissue, stop active bleeding and possibly evacuate the hematoma.
Brain Aneurysm Repair
This is an endovascular surgical procedure. A catheter is usually guided via a small cut in one's groin to an artery and then passed through the vessel to the brain where an aneurysm is situated. Alternatively, the surgery can be performed alongside open craniotomy.
Brain Tumor Surgery
Surgery is the common modality for managing many malignant and most benign tumors. The operation is performed by a neurosurgeon. It helps relieve seizures, remove tumors, take biopsies and enable chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Common techniques used include craniotomy, craniotomy, partial or complete removal, shunting, transsphenoidal surgery, LITT, etc.
This is the surgical repair of a deformity or defect in the skull. The defect is normally as a result of a previous injury or surgery. It might also be a congenital defect. The surgery is performed for cosmetic reasons and patient psychological wellbeing.
Chiari Malformation Treatment
Chiari Malformation is a condition in which tissues of the brain protrude into the spinal canal via the foramen magnum. This can lead to hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Treatment involves monitoring of the condition and surgery. Surgical procedures done include Decompressive craniectomy & laminectomy.
Brachial Plexus Injury Treatment
An operation to correct brachial plexus injuries should be performed within 6-7 months the injury as, beyond this period, the prognosis is poor. Teat such as MRI, CT, nerve conduction studies and electromyogram are usually done to determine the extent of the injury. Treatment can either be surgically or non-surgical, i.e., occupational therapy or physiotherapy or splinting /orthosis.
This is a procedure done to treat epilepsy in order to reduce or stop the seizures. There are different types of epilepsy surgical procedure. This includes removal of the area in the brain causing this seizures or separating the part of the brain causing these tumors from the rest.
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Surgery
This is a surgical procedure that is done to implant a device that send electrical stimulus signals to brain regions responsible for body movement. Electrode is placed deep in the brain and then connected to a stimulating device. DBS helps remove symptoms of slowness of movement, tremor, walking problems and stiffness that is caused by dystonia, essential tremor or Parkinsonism disease.
Skull Base Surgery
This is minimally invasive, highly specialized neurosurgical technique for diagnosis, evaluating and treating cancerous or benign growths located on the base of the skull, the upper vertebrae of the spine and the underside of the brain.
VP Shunt Surgery
VP shunting is a surgical procedure that primarily treats a condition called hydrocephalus. This condition occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collects in the brain's ventricles. CSF cushions your brain and protects it from injury inside your skull.
Breast Cancer Treatment
Treatment of breast cancer depends on the stage. The treatment may involve radiotherapy, surgery or medications. The types of surgeries used included mastectomy (radical mastectomy or simple mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, patery modified radical mastectomy), breast-conserving surgery, lumpectomy and lymph node dissection. Medical therapy involves chemotherapy for breast cancer or systemic hormonal therapy like tamoxifen.
Cervical Cancer Treatment
Treatment of cervical cancer depends on the stage though other factors like the site of the tumor, ones desire for children, overall health, age, and type of cancer. While in stage 0 (CIS), the condition can be managed by loop electrosurgical procedure, simple hysterectomy, cone biopsy, cryotherapy and laser therapy. At stage 1a, cone biopsy is preferred. At stage 1A2, cone biopsy or radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection is preferred, but for those who don’t desire fertility, EBRT and radical hysterectomy are desirable. At stage 1B and 2A, surgery and radiation or concurrent chemoradiation are desirable. At stage 2B, 3 and 4A chemo-radiation is used. At stage 4B, chemo-radiotherapy to try to slow down the tumor.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to treat diseases. But in medicine, it is commonly used when referring to the medical treatment of cancer that utilizes one or more antineoplastic medications as part of a standardized chemotherapeutic regimen. They are given with the intent to reduce symptoms, prolong life or cure cancer. Each cancer has a specific regiment that has been prepared for its management. Medical oncologists administrate chemotherapeutic regiment.
Acute Leukemia Treatment
The statement of acute leukemia depends on the subtype of leukemia. Treatment empathizes long-term cemetery with antineoplastic drugs. Various combination of chemotherapeutic agents has been developed for various leukemias. Oncologist use chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy and stem cell transplant.
Its a kind of radiotherapy where a sealed source of radiation is next to or inside the place needing treatment. A radioactive material is placed inside the body hence sometimes referred to as internal radiation. It is used in the management of cancer of the prostate, skin, cervical and breast and other tumors in the body. It can be used together with chemotherapy, surgery or EBRT.
Bladder Cancer Treatment
Medical and surgical modalities are used treatment of bladder cancer. The surgery done is either partial or complete Cystectomy. This involves partial or complete removal of the bladder. Medical therapy includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
The goal of this exercise is to detect cancers before their symptoms manifest. The test encompasses medical imaging, blood tests, urinalysis and other tests. It is common knowledge that the benefit of having a cancer screen done outweighs outweigh anybody harm that may result from the process. When cancerous tissues are detected early, they are easy to cure or treat. The most common cancers that are routinely screened are breast, colon, oral, prostate, pancreatic, lung, bowel and cervical cancers.
Whipple Procedure also known as kaush-Whipple Procedure, pancretoduodectopmy, pancreaticoduodenectomy is a major surgical procedure dome to remove cancer of head of pancreas. It involves the removal of the common bile duct, the gallbladder, the duodenum and portions of the stomach.
Chronic Leukemia Treatment
The treatment of chronic leukemia depend on a person’s age, reason for treatment, disease risk group, stage of cancer, signs and symptoms of disease, patient preference and overall health. Treatment options included targeted drug therapy, chemotherapy, bone marrow transplant, and immunotherapy.
Glioblastoma (Glioblastoma multiform) is a malignant tumor that affects the spinal cord and the brain. It is usually quite aggressive hence can spread quickly and grow fast. Treatment includes radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery (craniotomy and radiosurgery).
Laryngeal Cancer Treatment
Laryngeal Cancer is a condition which cancerous cells form from larynx tissues. The most common presentation include ear pain and sore throat. Laryngectomy (total) in addition to thyroidectomy and nodal removal followed by radiotherapy is the most common mode of treatment.
Staging is the process used to find out the amount of cancer in the body and their locations. The information is used by doctors to formulate the patient treatment plan and to determine their prognosis. There are four different ways staging is done i.e. pathological staging, post-neoadjuvanat or post-therapy staging, clinical staging and restaging (done when cancer recurs after treatment). The four factors used in staging include: site of primary tumor, the tumor size, the involvement of lymph nodes and metastases. Tests done to enable staging process include imaging tests, pathological tests, surgical reports, laboratory tests and physical examination.
This is a non-invasive treatment for benign and malignant tumors and other conditions that need radiotherapy. It is a flameless radiosurgery robotic system that uses targeted radiation to destroy tumor in the body. It is designed to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues and organs to radiation. It is pain free, does not need hospitalization or general anesthesia, spare healthy tissues, non-invasive and one only need one to five sessions to complete treatment.
Head and Neck Cancer Treatment (Throat Cancer)
Treatment of head and neck malignancies depend on the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment modalities used in the management of these malignancies included radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy. Surgical options included laser technology, excision, neck dissection or lymph node dissection, and reconstructive surgery. Target therapy is available.
High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)
This is a new medical technology that is under development and can be used to treat a wide range of disorderds.it is a treatment modality that aims to kill cancerous cells using high frequency sound waves. It is only useful in the management of a single tumor or a section of a larger tumor hence not useful for highly malignant cancers.
Adrenal Cancer Treatment
Treatment of adrenal cancer depend on the stage. Stage 1 and two are treated surgically which may be combined with radiotherapy or mitotane administration. Stage 3 is treated surgically. This may be preceded by adjuvant radiotherapy or mitotane. For stage 4, a debulking surgery is done followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Bile Duct Cancer Treatment
Treatment of this condition depend on the stage. Medical procedure used included chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolization, ERCP and radiotherapy. Surgical options available include hepatectomy and pancreatic tumor removal surgery.
Lymph Node Biopsy
A lymph node biopsy is the removal of lymph node tissue for examination under a microscope. The lymph nodes are small glands that make white blood cells (lymphocytes), which fight infection. Lymph nodes may trap the germs that are causing an infection. Cancer often spreads to lymph nodes. A lymph node biopsy is done in an operating room in a hospital. Or, it is done at an outpatient surgical center.
Blood Cancer Treatment (Leukemia)
Leukaemia is cancer of blood-forming tissues, including bone marrow. Many types exist such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Bone Cancer Treatment
Signs and symptoms of bone cancer include Bone pain, Swelling and tenderness near the affected area, Weakened bone, leading to fracture, Fatigue, Unintended weight loss.
Liver cancer Treatment (hepatic cancer)
Cancer that begins in the cells of the liver. Symptoms are uncommon in the early stages of liver cancer. Later, symptoms may include weight loss, stomach pain, vomiting and yellowed skin.
Lung Cancer Treatment
A cancer that begins in the lungs and most often occurs in people who smoke. Two major types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Causes of lung cancer include smoking, second-hand smoke, exposure to certain toxins and family history.
Prostate Cancer Treatment (prostatic carcinoma)
A cancer in a man's prostate, a small walnut-sized gland that produces seminal fluid. A man's prostate produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Symptoms include difficulty with urination, but sometimes there are no symptoms at all.
Mouth Cancer Treatment (Oral cancer)
Cancer that develops in any part of the mouth. Risk factors include tobacco use, heavy alcohol use and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Symptoms include a sore that doesn't heal, a lump or a white or red patch on the inside of the mouth.
Gamma Knife Radiosurgery
Gamma Knife Radiosurgery is a procedure that uses radiation to treat brain tumours and anomalies of the brain. Using specialized medical equipment, high number of radiation beams are passed exactly on the tumor in the brain. This is highly precise technique and causes negligible damage to tissues near the tumor. All the beams combine on the tumor and create a strong radiation, thereby destroying the tumor.
Lymphatic cancer (Lymphoma)
A cancer of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is the body's disease-fighting network. It includes the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland and bone marrow. The main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Symptoms include enlarged lymph nodes, fatigue and weight loss. Treatment may involve chemotherapy, medication, radiation therapy and rarely stem-cell transplant.
Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT)
Image-guided radiation therapy is the process of frequent two and three-dimensional imaging, during a course of radiation treatment, used to direct radiation therapy utilizing the imaging coordinates of the actual radiation treatment plan.
Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)
Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) uses linear accelerators to safely and painlessly deliver precise radiation doses to a tumor while minimizing the dose to surrounding normal tissue. Your radiation oncologist will speak with you to determine whether IMRT is the most appropriate treatment for you.
Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS)
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a non-surgical radiation therapy used to treat functional abnormalities and small tumors of the brain. It can deliver precisely-targeted radiation in fewer high-dose treatments than traditional therapy, which can help preserve healthy tissue.
The pancreas secretes enzymes that aid digestion and hormones that help regulate the metabolism of sugars. This type of cancer is often detected late, spreads rapidly and has a poor prognosis. There are no symptoms in the early stages. Later stages are associated with symptoms, but these can be non-specific, such as lack of appetite and weight loss. Treatment may include surgically removing the pancreas, radiation and chemotherapy.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Bone Marrow Cancer (Multiple myeloma)
A cancer of plasma cells. The plasma cells are a type of white blood cell in the bone marrow. With this condition, a group of plasma cells becomes cancerous and multiplies. The disease can damage the bones, immune system, kidneys and red blood cell count. Symptoms may not be present or may be non-specific, such as loss of appetite, bone pain and fever. Treatments include medication, chemotherapy, corticosteroids, radiation or a stem-cell transplant.
Artificial Disc Replacement
Sometimes also called total disc replacement or total disc arthroplasty. The procedure involves replacing a painful damaged disc with an artificial disc. The procedure can be performed on the neck (cervical spine) or lumbar spine (lower back). The procedure helps preserve motion in the intervertebral discs. It is performed in patients with damaged discs, e.g., due to disease or cervical disc herniation unresponsive to non-surgical management.
Cervical Disc Disease Treatment
The treatment of cervical disc diseases begins when your doctor takes a good history, carries out a physical examination and then order appropriate investigations. The investigations of choice of choice are CT, MRI, and X-rays that will help your doctor localize the problem. Based on this the doctor will decide whether to use the surgical or nonsurgical option. Non-surgical modalities include lifestyle modification, physiotherapy, and analgesia and heat therapy. Surgical option helps one heal fast and include cervical artificial disc replacement and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (available in India).
This is a surgical procedure used to remove areas of the vertebral bones called lamina. Muscles of the back are pushed sideways during the procedure rather than cut and sections of the vertebra adjacent to the lamina left intact. It’s sometimes referred to as decompression surgery. It helps relieve purser on the spinal nerves and spinal cord. Commonly done to manage spinal stenosis.
This is a surgery done on the spine to treat back pain, or other damages are done on the spine by trauma or disease scoliosis, spinal stenosis, and disc herniation. It is recommended when conservative treatments are unsuccessful. It can either be done as an open or minimally invasive procedure. Common surgical approaches are lateral, posterior and anterior. Spinal surgical techniques included laminotomy, laminectomy, microdiscectomy, disc replacement, spinal fusion, and foraminotomy.
This is a surgical operation that involves removing part or all a vertebral body usually as a mean of decompressing the nerves and spinal cord. It is sometimes performed in association with discectomy. It is commonly done in a patient with spinal stenosis due to osteophytes.
This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure sued to treat the compression of the spine following a fracture. The spinal compression fractures usually occur majorly in spinal vertebral bones weakened by osteoporosis. It helps relieve pain and correct deformities.
This is a medical procedure done to relieve pressure applied to nerves that are being compressed by intervertebral foramina. Intervertebral foramina is a passage of the vertebral bone through which nerves bundles pass to the body from the spinal cord. It is performed via a minimally invasive operation where a cut is made in the back then the muscles pushed on to the sides to create a way. The surgeon will then drills a small hole in the vertebral bone.
Cervical Spondylosis Treatment
The management of this condition involves rehabilitative programs like occupational therapy, physical therapy, and recreational therapy. Surgery is advised when neurologic deficits progress, when there is documented spinal cord or cervical nerve root compression and when the pain becomes intractable.
Scoliosis is a condition where ones spine bend LATERALLY (sideways). It arises commonly before pubertal growth spurts.it can be caused by muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy or idiopathic. Surgical OPTIONS include scoliosis fusion surgery and anterior scoliosis corrective surgery (VBT).
Spinal Disc Herniation Treatment (slipped disc)
This condition can be managed medically or surgically. Pain is managed using NSAIDs and therapies like physical therapy, stretching and chiropractic techniques are useful. Medical procedures included epidural steroid injection and therapeutic ultrasound. Spine surgery is the definitive management.
Scoliosis is a condition where ones spine bend LATERALLY (sideways). It arises commonly before pubertal growth spurts. It can be caused by muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy or idiopathic. Surgery is the main modality of treatment. Surgical options include scoliosis fusion surgery and anterior scoliosis corrective surgery (VBT).
Spinal Fusion Surgery
Sometimes also called spondylosyndesis or spondylodesis. It is an operation done to stop motion in segments of the spine (thoracic, lumber or cervical) that are causing a patient pain. It helps to stabilizes and decompress the spine. The procedure involves the use of bone grafts which can either be allografts, autografts or artificial substitutes.
This is a minimally invasive procedure (sometimes referred to as percutaneous discectomy) used to treat patient suffering from problem caused by herniated discs such as leg pain and low back pain. It is performed by an interventional radiologist.
Lumbar Microdiscectomy Surgery
A lumbar microdiscectomy surgery is performed to remove the portion of a herniated disc that is irritating or inflaming the nerve root. A microdiscectomy is performed through a small incision in the midline of the low back. First, the back muscles, called erector spinae, are lifted off the bony arch, called the lamina, of the spine. Since these back muscles run vertically, they can be moved out of the way rather than cut. The surgeon is then able to enter the spine by removing a membrane over the nerve roots. This membrane is called the ligamentum flavum. Often, a small portion of the inside facet joint is removed both to facilitate access to the nerve root and to relieve pressure over the nerve. The nerve root is then gently moved to the side and the disc material is removed from under the nerve root. Only the herniated portion of the disc is removed; the healthy portion of the disc is left intact. After the piece of the disc that is irritating or inflaming the nerve root has been removed, the pressure is off the nerve immediately and it has room to heal. A herniated disc pressing on a nerve root can cause severe leg pain. While it may take weeks or months for the nerve root to fully heal and any numbness or weakness to get better, patients normally feel relief from the leg pain almost immediately after a microdiscectomy.
Spinal Tumor Surgery
A spinal tumor is a growth that develops in or near the spinal cord or within the bones and discs of the spine. Spinal tumors may be cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign). Spine tumors, both benign and malignant can cause significant disability when they occur in the spine.
Bladder Neck Incision (BNI)
This is a procedure done on men experiencing difficulty passing urine due to benign prostatic enlargement or urinary tract obstruction from a tight prostate. The patient usually presents with frequency, urgency, urine dribbling, hesitancy, poor urine stream and incomplete emptying of the balder. The operation helps relieve these symptoms of obstruction.
This is a surgical procedure that removes part or whole of the prostate gland. It is usually used in the treatment of benign prostatic enlargement (BPH), or prostate canacer.it can be performed in several ways. For prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy is recommended. The current technique for performing this include open radical prostatectomy (retropubic or transvesical), laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. For benign enlarged prostate, simple prostatectomy is recommended. Newer techniques for managing BPH include transurethral resection of the prostate, transurethral laser-induced prostatectomy and Trans-urethral incision of the prostate. Noninvasive techniques include cryotherapy, laser therapy, thermal ablation and balloon dilation.
This is a surgical revision or reconstruction procedure of renal pelvis to decompress or drain the kidneys.it is performed to manage ureteropelvic junction obstructions provided the residual renal function is still adequate. Congenital hydronephrosis is its most common presentation in pediatrics.
This is the removal of the penile foreskin. It is the most commonly performed procedure in the world. In it, the foreskin is opened. Then adhesions removed before being separated from the glans and cut. The penis is then sutured. A recent study indicated that it lowers one's risk of contracting HIV by60%.
This is the surgical removal of part or whole (radical) of the urinary bladder. Sometimes the term is used to refer to the removal of the gallbladder or a cyst. This is commonly performed after a diagnosis of bladder cancer.
Erectile Dysfunction Treatment
Erectile Dysfunction is the inability of a man to keep or get an erection firm to have sexual intercourse. It is commonly described as important. The condition can be managed medically. 1st the patient has to be evaluated for a treatment plan is made, the plan may incorporate assistive devices like pumps or medications.
Bladder Stone Removal
This is a procedure done to remove renal stones that have formed in the bladder or pound their way into the bladder hence causing obstruction and pain. Various procedures are used to remove the stones, e.g., percutaneous suprapubic crystolitholapaxy and open cystostomy.
This is the endoscopic examination of the bladder. During the procedure, an endoscopic tube with a light and camera at the end is inserted into one's urethra, and into your bladder to visualize the inside of the bladder.
Kidney Stones Treatment
The treatment of renal stones included taking a lot of water to help pass these stones and use of painkiller to relive renal colonic pain. Drug used included NSAIDs, diuretics narcotics and urinary retention drugs. Medical procedures that can be done to remove the stones include laser lithotripsy, uteroscopic stone removal and extracorporeal shockwave therapy.
This is a procedure done to take a sample from the prostate for histological analysis. It is dome to detect or diagnose cancer of the prostate especially after blood PSA level; rises to the level of prostate cancer. There are several options that can be used to take the sample i.e. MRI-guided biopsy, ultrasound guided biopsy, Transrectal biopsy and transurethral biopsy.
TURP (Transurethral Resection of Prostate)
Transurethral Resection of Prostate is a surgery to remove the inside part of the prostate gland. It is done in order to treat symptoms of an enlarged prostate. The surgery takes about 1 hour. You will be given medicine before surgery so you don't feel pain. You may get general anesthesia in which you are asleep and pain-free or spinal anesthesia in which you are awake, but relaxed and pain-free. The surgeon will insert a scope through the tube that carries urine from your bladder out of the penis. This tube is called the urethra. A special cutting tool is placed through the scope. It is used to remove the inside part of your prostate gland using electricity.
Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL - Kidney Stone Removal)
Percutaneous (through the skin) urinary procedures help drain urine from your bladder and get rid of kidney stones. A percutaneous nephrostomy is the placement of a small, flexible rubber tube (catheter) through your skin into your kidney to drain your urine. It is inserted through your back or flank. Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (or nephrolithotomy) is the passing of a special medical instrument through your skin into your kidney. This is done to remove kidney stones.
Ureteroscopy (URS) is a form of minimally invasive surgery using a small telescope that is passed through the urethra and into the ureter to remove a stone. Often the stone requires fragmentation with a laser which then allows the smaller fragments to removed with a grasping device.
A penile prosthesis is another treatment option for men with erectile dysfunction (ED). These devices are either malleable or inflatable. The simplest type of prosthesis consists of a pair of malleable (bendable) rods surgically implanted within the erection chambers of the penis.
Radical cystectomy is the removal of the entire bladder, nearby lymph nodes (lymphadenectomy), part of the urethra, and nearby organs that may contain cancer cells. In men , the prostate, the seminal vesicles, and part of the vas deferens are also removed.
Radical prostatectomy is an operation to remove the prostate gland and tissues surrounding it. This usually includes the seminal vesicles and some nearby lymph nodes. Radical prostatectomy can cure prostate cancer in men whose cancer is limited to the prostate.
It is a treatment modality in which the ambient pressure gradient greater than the atmospheric sea pressure is used. It comprises therapeutic recompression (used to manage depression illnesses like air emboli) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
This is the process by which physicians assess the body of a patient for sings disease. In medical practice, it is terms used commonly to refer to is included a clinical examination or physical examination. It is done after a comprehensive history of a patient has been taken. It thus helps in diagnosis and formulating the treatment plan.
This is the physical examination of the abdomen to identify signs of disease; it is done in four stages, i.e., inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation.
Female Health Checkup
This is a gynecological procedure used to assess the female reproductive system. It involved a physical exam of the female perineum and possibly a specular exam, Apart from this various imaging and laboratory tests can be ordered to help the doctor make a proper conclusion.
General Medicine Consultation
This is a visit to a physician or general medical practitioner. The doctor will take the patient history and carry out a physical exam of all systems after which proper investigations are done and a treatment plan formulated.
This is the use of extremely cold temperatures (by liquid nitrogen) in surgery to destroy diseased or abnormal tissue, i.e., it is the use of cryoablation in surgery. It is commonly used to get rid of skin tags, Morton’s neuroma, small skin cancers, moles, and warts.
Deep Wound Treatment
A deep wound is one that cuts deeper than a quarter an inch beneath the skin surface. Due to their depth, this wound is likely to involve damage to tendons, major blood vessels, ligaments or internal organs. This can lead to both external and internal bleeding. These wounds require urgent treatment to avoid complications like shock. The bleeding has to be arrested, then cl4ned and properly dressed. Antibiotics and tetanus vaccine must be administered to the patient.
This is the administration of a vaccine to a person to stimulate their immune system thereby developing adaptive immunity against the target pathogen.
Male Health Checkup
This is a collection of tests and medical checks that are be performed on male person. It varies by age groups. They help detect and prevent health problem before they advance into serious health complications. The history of the man will be taken, them he will undergo a physical examination and finally some routine tests performed on him. The tests may include urinalysis, blood samples, stool samples, x-rays of some parts of the body etc.
Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) Treatment
HSP is a group of inherited conditions whose primary feature is progressive gait disorder. It presents with contraction and spasticity of the lower limbs. Though the condition has no cure, it can be managed. Regular physical therapy is important to improve and maintain the muscle strength and range of movement.
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT)
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a medical treatment which enhances the body's natural healing process by inhalation of 100% oxygen in a total body chamber, where atmospheric pressure is increased and controlled. It is used for a wide variety of treatments usually as a part of an overall medical care plan.
CCSVI is a term used to describe the compromise of blood flow in veins draining the CNS. Failure to treat the condition can, in the long run, predispose one to multiple sclerosis. It is commonly diagnosed using a Trans-cranial Doppler ultrasound, an MRI scan or Doppler sonography. It can be managed by a surgical procedure known as venous angioplasty where a surgeon will insert a balloon to keep veins open, clear a blockage & restore blood flow to spinal cord and brain.
Parkinson's Disease Treatment
The disease is only diagnosed after a proper history then physical and neurological exam. Imaging scans are not diagnostic by only help rule out other disorders. The disease is not curable but can be controlled using drugs like carbidopa-levodopa, dopamine, MAO-B inhibitors and, COMP inhibitors, anticholinergic and amantadine. When surgery is advisee, deep brain stimulation can be done.
Alzheimer's Disease Consultation
This is the evaluation of a patient suffering from dementia and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. The doctor will assess the patient and prepares an appropriate treatment plan and inform the guardian on hoe w the patient should be cared for, the prognosis and booking future reviews.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Consultation
This is the evaluation of a patient who has ALS. The doctor will assess the patient and formulate an appropriate treatment plan and inform the guardian on hoe w the patient should be cared for, and advise on of follow up.
This is a physician-supervised program that is designed for patients with trauma, disorders or diseases of the nervous system. The program improves one's functions, reduce symptoms and greatly improve the overall well-being of a patient.
Dementia is the overall term used to describe a range of clinical conditions that are associated with the decline in one’s memory or thinking skills to the extent that one is unable to perform his/her normal daily life activities. The treatment if Dementia depends on its cause. Once the cause is determined, the condition will improve once the cause is properly managed.
Epilepsy is recurrent seizes in one’s brain. The management of epilepsy can be done by drugs, and sometimes devices, dietary changes or surgery. Anticonvulsants are the main stray of treatment. This is however influenced by the type of epilepsy, the age of patient, pregnancy or breastfeeding.
This is a headache of that varies in intensity and is often accompanied by sound and light sensitivity and nausea. The condition can be managed by medications. The drugs can either be pain-relieving or preventive. Pain relieving medications included painkillers, triptans, ergots, anti-nausea drugs, opioids, and glucocorticoids. Preventative medications included cardiovascular drugs, antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, painkillers, and Botox.
This is an appointment with a neurologist (physician that has subspecialized in neurology) for treatment, diagnosis or management of disorders that affect the nervous system.
Trigeminal Neuralgia Treatment
Trigeminal Neuralgia is a chronic pain in the face arising from disorders that damage cranial nerve V i.e. trigeminal nerve. Treatment included injections (e.g. Botox injection and glycerol injection), medications (anticonvulsants, and antispasmodic agents) and surgery (microvasculer decompression, brain stereotactic radiosurgery). Other include balloon compression and radiofrequency thermal lesioning.
This is a medical procedure where patients are induced into a temporary state of loss of awareness or sensation.it may include amnesia, paralysis, unconsciousness or analgesia. It can be local or general. It is normally given before surgical procedures or in the ICU.
This is the review of a newly diagnosed or known diabetic patient by a diabetic care team. The doctors will take the patient history of the condition, carry out physical examinations to detect any diabetic complication, proper carryout investigations like RBS and educated the patient about his condition an, the impotence of drug compliance and possible lifestyle changes that patient will have to implement. The consult may decide to change the patient drugs.
This is a review of a patient suspected or diagnosed with endocrinological disorders such as hyperthyroidism. The patient will undergo a clinical examination and relevant investigations ordered to check the patient’s general medical condition. The patient’s medications will also be reviewed, and if failing, they will be changed. The consult can be done to a gynecologic, obstetric, medical, surgical, pediatric or even a psychiatric patient.
These are tests done to diagnose or rule our Endocrinological disorders. The test measures the level of a certain hormone in the blood, e.g., estrogen, thyroid function test, growth hormone, stimulating follicle hormone, etc.
Facial Paralysis Treatment
This treatment aims to improve the function and reduce damages to the facial nerve. The paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve leads to Bell’s palsy. Facial nerve paralysis is managed medically using corticosteroids, antivirals or a combination of both.
Facial Tumor Removal
The growth and removal of these tumors (whether malignant or benign) can affect the bones and soft tissues of ones face thereby altering its shape. The surgical methods available to remove these tumors depend on the type of tumor, site, and size. The tumors can be removed by curettage, surgical excision, and cryotherapy. It is normally performed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Plastic and reconstructive surgeons can come in to improve the cosmetic outcome of the procedures.
Jaw Fracture Treatment
The treatment of fractures of the jaw is often surgical, though this depends on the extent of the injuries. Clean jaws normally heal on their own if properly immobilized. Surgical repair is always needed to manage multiple fractures of the jaw bone. Closed reduction in dentate patients is achieved using Eric arch bars, bridle wire or ivy loop. Open reductions using compression screw, plate fixation or wire osteosynthesis are available.
Lasik Surgery for both eyes
LASIK is the most commonly performed laser eye surgery to treat myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) and astigmatism.
Specialists working with Erfan Hospital, Tehran, Iran
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