Max Super Specialty Hospital Shalimar Bagh, Delhi
The Max Super Specialty Hospital Shalimar Bagh belongs to the wider Max Healthcare group, which operates 8 state-of-the-art hospital facilities in India. The super specialty hospital is NABH accredited, the highest hospital accreditation available in India, and is equipped with 300 patient beds along with advanced technology and operation theaters. It covers nearly all major medical specialties, including radiology, pathology, and nuclear medicine. The hospital has a dedicated international patient coordination team which assists in visa organization, regional translation services, airport transfer, and hotel booking. It also offers a range of other services including free WiFi, a pharmacy, laundry, dry cleaning, and nanny services. The hospital offers private and disability access rooms, all of which are equipped with a phone and TV, and can assist with booking hotel accommodation for family members. Additionally, the hospital has partnerships with many international health insurance providers such as Max Bupa health insurance, and AXA, amongst many more.
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Ophthalmology 14 procedures
This is a procedure where the lens in one’s eye that has become cloudy (cataract) is removed and replaced with an artificial Len (called IOL or intraocular Len). Cataract is a condition that leads to loss of vision by clouding of one’s natural eye Len that lies behind the pupil and iris. It is performed by an ophthalmologist.
Detached Retina Treatment
The retinal detachment is an emergency condition where the pulls from the bold vessel that supply it with nutrients and oxygen. It’s accompanied by floaters (cobwebs or specks) and flashes in one's vision. If not fixed leads to blindness. The condition can be managed via various treatment modalities by an ophthalmologist. The notable procedures include vitrectomy, pneumatic retinopexy and scleral buckle procedure.
It is also known as blepharoplasty. It’s a surgical procedure meant to improve the appearance of one's eyelids. It can be performed on the lower lid, upper lids or both. It’s performed by plastic surgeons and helps correct deformities, disfigurations, and defects of the eyelids. It’s used to treat sagging or loose skin that creates a fold and disturb natural contour of the eye, remove fatty deposits that make ones eye puffy, remove bags below the eye, correct drooping lower lid and remove fine wrinkles and excess skins in lower lids.
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Treatment
Currently, there is no specific treatment for dry AMD, but the patient can slow their condition by taking minerals and vitamins daily. There are however the wet AMD can be managed with Anti-VEGF drugs which helps decrease the number of abnormal vessels in one’s eye. Laser surgery can also be used to manage it.
This is corneal grafting. It is a surgical procedure where a person’s diseased or damaged cornea is replaced by a corneal tissue that is donated.
Artificial Iris Implantation
During this procedure, an artificial iris made from silicon is folded then inserted into an incision that has been made in the cornea. It is a cosmetic procedure. In it, the iris is adjusted and unfolded to cove one's natural iris. This implant is used to change the color of one’s eyes. It is also sued to treat coloboma or people whose iris have been damaged by traumatic injuries.
Amniotic Membrane Transplant
Amniotic Membrane can function as a temporary graft or a basement membrane substitute in the eye. The membrane has growth factors that promote wound healing. Also, it has anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring effects. AM has two functions, i.e., as a surgical graft and as a biological bandage. AMT is used in ophthalmology to reconstruct the conjunctiva and the cornea after scaring due to disease, acute burns, and corneal persistent epithelial defects.
A Chalazion is a painless benign nodule or bulge in the lower or upper eyelids. Conservatively, it is managed by lid hygiene and warm compress. Medically, topical or intralesional steroids can be used to minimize inflammation. This can cause regression of the lesion in few weeks. An ophthalmologist best performs surgery to remove the lesion.
This is type of refractive error in which the eyes don’t focus light evenly on the retina resulting in blurring of vision. It can also lead to night blindness, headaches and eyestrains. The condition is corrected with contact lenses, refractive surgery and eyeglasses.
Vitrectomy (Retinal Detachment Repair)
Retinal detachment repair is eye surgery to place a retina back into its normal position. The retina is the light-sensitive tissue in the back of the eye. Detachment means that it has pulled away from the layers of tissue around it. Most retinal detachment repair operations are urgent. A detached retina does not get a supply of oxygen. This causes the cells in the area to die, which can lead to blindness. If holes or tears in the retina are found before the retina detaches, the eye doctor can close the holes using a laser.
Ptosis (lazy eye)
Ptosis is a drooping or falling of the upper eyelid. The drooping may be worse after being awake longer when the individual's muscles are tired. This condition is sometimes called "lazy eye", but that term normally refers to the condition amblyopia.
An eye cancer that begins in the back of the eye (retina), most commonly in children. Retinoblastoma may occur in one or both eyes. Retinoblastoma has few, if any, symptoms at first. It may be noticed if a pupil appears white when light is shone into the eye, sometimes with flash photography. Eyes may appear to be looking in different directions. Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation and laser therapy.
Strabismus (ocular misalignment)
Disorder in which the eyes don't look in exactly the same direction at the same time. Causes of strabismus can include nerve injury or dysfunction of the muscles controlling the eye. The main symptom is eyes that don't look in exactly the same direction at the same time. Crossed eyes can usually be corrected with early treatment. Several treatment options exist to align the eyes. They include special eye wear, use of an eye patch and rarely surgery.
A group of eye conditions that can cause blindness. With all types of glaucoma, the nerve connecting the eye to the brain is damaged, usually due to high eye pressure. The most common type of glaucoma (open-angle glaucoma) often has no symptoms other than slow vision loss. Angle-closure glaucoma, although rare, is a medical emergency and its symptoms include eye pain with nausea and sudden visual disturbance. Treatment includes eye drops, medication and surgery.
Gastroenterology 23 procedures
This is a surgical procedure used to remove the gallbladder i.e., pear- shaped organ below the right lobe of the liver where bile is stored. The gallbladder can be removed due to inflammation (cholecystitis), gallstones if it leads to pancreatitis, gallbladder cancer, and biliary colic. The procedure can either be open or laparoscopic. Laparoscopic surgery is minimally invasive and only performed by a laparoscopic surgeon. Currently, advanced laparoscopic surgeries use single incisions, a technique called single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) or laparoendoscopic single site surgery.
This is an endoscopic procedure used to examine the colon (large intestine) and the Ileum (the distal sections of the small intestine) using a fiber optic camera or a CCD camera on a flexible tube that is passed via the anus. It helps in the diagnosis of ulcers (e.g., ulcerative colitis, Cohn’s disease), polyps (e.g., HNPCC) and removal or biopsy of suspected lesions of colorectal cancer. It is also used in screening for colorectal cancer. Currently, virtual colonoscopy which is virtually noninvasive is available and uses CT scans or MRI sand to reconstruct its images.
It is a nonsurgical procedure done to examine a person’s gastrointestinal tract. A patient may be anesthetized or fully conscious during the process. It is used in the investigation of gastrointestinal symptoms, confirmation of diagnosis and for treatment purposes, e.g., widening and esophageal stricture. The most commonly performed endoscopic procedure is esophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD). Endoscopy is also used to examine the respiratory tract (rhinoscopy or bronchoscopy), the ear (otoscope), the urinary tract (cystoscopy) and female reproductive tract (gynoscopy). The technology is also available for use in pregnancy, plastic surgery, orthopedic surgery, endodontic surgeries, endoscopic spinal procedure and endoscopic endonasal surgeries.
Treatment of gallstones is based on one's symptoms and results of diagnostic procedures. The treatment options include cholecystectomy (surgery to remove the gallbladder) and drugs meant to dissolve the stones.
Liver Transplant (Living Related Donor)
This is the replacement of a diseased liver with a healthy one from a relative.it is recommended as a treatment for an end-stage liver disease or liver failure. The donor and recipient will have to undergo DNA analysis to ensure they are a close match before the procedure is done to minimize the risk of graft rejection.
This is a surgical procedure where a stoma is created by dragging a healthy end of the large bowel via an incision in the anterior wall of the abdomen then sutured into place. There are several techniques of colostomy, i.e., wind colostomy, loop colostomy and double barrel colostomy.
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
This is a technique that combines the use of fluoroscopy and endoscopy to diagnose and treat pancreatic and biliary ductal systems conditions like bile stones.
This is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure. In the process, a flexible thin tube, i.e., an endoscope is inserted into the gullet, stomach, and the duodenum. The endoscope has a camera at its end. The most commonly used terms in hospitals to refer to the procedure are upper GI endoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD).
A gastroenterologist is a physician that has unique training and experience in the management of liver and gastrointestinal diseases. In a Gastroenterology Consultation, the doctor will examine the patient’s abdomen, possibly do an endoscopic procedure, order appropriate investigations on the patient’s and formulate or review the patient's treatment plan.
Gastrointestinal Perforation Repair
This is a procedure done to repair a hole in the gastrointestinal tract. It is performed during an exploratory laparotomy where the hole is looked for and the damaged area corrected.
Liver Transarterial Chemo Embolization (TACE)
This is a procedure done to manage liver cancer. Embolization is a procedure that slows or blocks the blood supply for an organ or tissue. In this case, it is used to block the blood supply to a live tumor so that that cancer cells can die. Chemoembolization is when the embolization material is used to deliver chemotherapy. Liver TACE, hepatic atrial blood supply to the tumor is blocked.
This is biopsy taken form the liver. It is a medical procedure that is done to diagnose, assess severity or monitor response to treatment of liver diseases.
Esophageal Cancer Surgery
This is a procedure done to treat cancer of the esophagus. The diseased area is resected. It is commonly done to manage earl stage (stage 1 and 2) esophageal cancer. It can be combine with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Surgical options available included minimally invasive esophagectomy, open esophagectomy, and endoscopic mucosal resection.
Intra-Abdominal Adhesions Surgery
Adhesion are complications of radiation therapy, inflammatory processes and abdomino-pelvic surgeries. These adhesions can cause infertility, intestinal obstructions, chronic pelvic pain, and dyspareunia. These surgery is meat to manage these effects of adhesions so as to improve the patients overall quality of life.
Bile Duct Cancer Surgery
This is a procedure done to manage cancers of the distal and perihiler bile ducts. The surgery removes the bile duct and all the sentinel lymph nodes, along with sections of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and small bowel depending on the patient disease statue.
This is a surgical procedure done to in which the common bile duct is to looks for an remove bile stone within it. It can be done as a laparoscopic operation or an open procedure.
Capsule endoscopy is a procedure that uses a tiny wireless camera to take pictures of your digestive tract. A capsule endoscopy camera sits inside a vitamin-size capsule you swallow. As the capsule travels through your digestive tract, the camera takes thousands of pictures that are transmitted to a recorder you wear on a belt around your waist. Capsule endoscopy helps doctors see inside your small intestine — an area that isn't easily reached with more-traditional endoscopy procedures. Traditional endoscopy involves passing a long, flexible tube equipped with a video camera down your throat or through your rectum.
Cystogastrostomy is a surgery to create an opening between a pancreatic pseudocyst and the stomach when the cyst is in a suitable position to be drained into the stomach. This conserves pancreatic juices that would otherwise be lost. This surgery is performed by a GI surgeon to avoid a life-threatening rupture of the pancreatic pseudocyst.
Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced surgical procedure using endoscopy to remove gastrointestinal tumors that have not entered the muscle layer. ESD may be done in the esophagus, stomach or colon. Application of endoscopic resection (ER) to gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms is limited to lesions with no risk of nodal metastasis. Either polypectomy or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is beneficial for patients because of its low level of invasiveness. However, to ensure the curative potential of these treatment modalities, accurate histopathologic assessment of the resected specimens is essential because the depth of invasion and lymphovascular infiltration of the tumor is associated with considerable risk for lymph node metastasis. For accurate assessment of the appropriateness of the therapy, en bloc resection is more desirable than piecemeal resection. For a reliable en bloc resection of GI neoplasms, a new method of ER called endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been developed.
Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (EUS-FNA)
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) is currently performed on a routine basis at many endoscopic centers and it is evident that this procedure has a major impact on the therapeutic management of patients by obtaining a definite tissue diagnosis from lesions outlined by endosonography.
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) Placement
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a method of placing a tube into the stomach percutaneously, aided by endoscopy.
Esophageal manometry is a test to measure how well the esophagus is working. During esophageal manometry, a thin, pressure-sensitive tube is passed through your nose, down the esophagus, and into your stomach. Before the procedure, you receive numbing medicine inside the nose. This helps make the insertion of the tube less uncomfortable. After the tube is in the stomach, the tube is pulled slowly back into your esophagus. At this time, you are asked to swallow. The pressure of the muscle contractions is measured along several sections of the tube. While the tube is in place, other studies of your esophagus may be done. The tube is removed after the tests are completed. The test takes about 1 hour.
During a biofeedback session, electrodes are attached to your skin. Finger sensors can also be used. These electrodes/sensors send signals to a monitor, which displays a sound, flash of light, or image that represents your heart and breathing rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, sweating, or muscle activity. When you're under stress, these functions change. Your heart rate speeds up, your muscles tighten, your blood pressure rises, you start to sweat, and your breathing quickens. You can see these stress responses as they happen on the monitor, and then get immediate feedback as you try to stop them. Biofeedback sessions are typically done in a therapist's office, but there are computer programs that connect the biofeedback sensor to your own computer. A biofeedback therapist helps you practice relaxation exercises, which you fine-tune to control different body functions. For example, you might use a relaxation technique to turn down the brainwaves that activate when you have a headache
General Surgery 15 procedures
Bone Marrow Transplant (Autologous)
This is a surgical procedure which involves a process where unhealthy bone marrow tissue is replaced with a healthy one. Bone marrow is the spongy soft tissue inside one's bones that contain blood-forming cells (hematopoietic or blood stem cells). The cell intern mature into platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells. Before the transplant, radiation, chemotherapy or both may be given to destroy the diseased bone marrow tissue. This can be done in either of two ways, i.e., reduced intensive treatment or ablative treatment. The three types of bone marrow transplants are umbilical cord blood transplant, allogeneic bone marrow transplant or autologous bone marrow transplant. The donor cells are collected in two ways or leukapheresis or bone marrow harvest.
A hernia is an abnormal protrusion in whole or part, through an OPENING, pathological or anatomically in the walls of its containing cavity, e.g., the abdominal cavity. Hernia Repair procedures involve returning this displaced tissue to their proper place. There are different types of Hernia Repair surgeries, i.e., Herniorrhaphy (tissue repair) and hernioplasty (mesh repair) where a mesh is usually sewn over weakened areas.
This is the surgical removal either wholly or partially one or both breasts. It is carried out to treat breast cancer. It can be carried out prophylactically in case a patient has a high risk of breast malignancy. There are five types of mastectomies being practiced today, i.e., radical mastectomy, subcutaneous (nipple- sparing) mastectomy, partial mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy and “total” or “simple” mastectomy.
This is the surgical excision of one or both the suprarenal glands. It can be performed as laparoscopic or as an open procedure. It is commonly performed on patients with adrenal cancers.
This is the surgical removal of the appendix. It is performed after a patient suffering from acute appendicitis. It can be performed as laparoscopic or as an open procedure.
Hiatal Hernia Surgery
This is a surgery done to correct a hiatal hernia. Hiatal Hernia is the abnormal protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm.
This is a procedure done by a gynecologist to view a woman’s reproductive organs using a laparoscope. A laparoscope is a thin tube that is normally passed through a small cut in the abdomen. It helps the doctor to directly see the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus and nearby organs. It can be issued to localize the source of pain, examine body tissues, confirm PID or endometriosis and look for fallopian tube blockage.
Breast Abscess Drainage
This is a minor surgical procedure done to remove pus from female breast abscesses. An incision is made to create an opening through which the abscess is drained. After this, the area left is packed with iodine-soaked gauze, and the patient is given drugs to take and given an appointment to return for a checkup. A recent advance in the procedure is the introduction of percutaneous aspiration under ultrasound guidance.
This is a procedure done to remove a breast tumor. The tumor and a portion of its surrounding (usually a margin of about 2 cm). It is a form of breast-conserving surgery or breast preservation procedure. It is technically a partial mastectomy procedure.
This is the surgical removal of a part of the liver. It is a procedure done to manage some types of liver malignancies and metastatic colorectal cancer. The liver tumor must be located in the area under resection.
Umbilical Hernia Repair
An umbilical hernia is a pouch or bulge the forma in the anterior abdominal wall. It arises when part of the intestine push through a weak area in the anterior wall near the umbilicus. The operation aims to fix the hernia. It is done when the hernia gets largest than one inch or is causing a disfigurement or is accompanied by pain.
Nephrectomy (removal of kidney)
This is the surgical removal of a kidney. It is done to manage kidney malignancies as well as other kidney injuries and diseases. It can also be done to remove a healthy kidney for purposes of transplantation from donor.
Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy
In a sleeve gastrectomy, also known as a vertical sleeve gastrectomy or gastric sleeve procedure, the outer margin of the stomach is removed to restrict food intake, leaving a sleeve of stomach, roughly the size and shape of a banana, and the pylorus, the muscle that controls emptying of food from the stomach into the intestine. A sleeve gastrectomy is a purely restrictive procedure. Sleeve gastrectomy - posselt slides. The sleeve gastrectomy, by reducing the size of the stomach, allows the patient to feel full after eating less and taking in fewer calories. The surgery removes that portion of the stomach that produces a hormone that can makes a patient feel hungry. Sleeve gastrectomy is a simpler operation than the gastric bypass procedure because it does not involve rerouting of or re-connection of the intestines. The sleeve gastrectomy, unlike the Lap-band, does not require the use of a banding device to be implanted around a portion of the stomach.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Lap Chole)
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a procedure in which the gallbladder is removed by laparoscopic techniques. Laparoscopic surgery also referred to as minimally invasive surgery describes the performance of surgical procedures with the assistance of a video camera and several thin instruments.
An anal fistula is an abnormal connection between the lining on the inside of your anal canal (back passage) and the skin near your anus. Surgery for anal fistula is usually performed under a general anesthesia. The surgery usually takes between a quarter of an hour and half an hour.
Dentistry 9 procedures
This is an endodontic procedure that is done using a microscope hence also referred to as endodontic microsurgery. It is commonly done after a previous root canal procedure which has become infected and the second root retreatment unsuccessful or impossible. In an apicoectomy, the teeth root tip is removed, and then a root end cavity is prepared before being filled with a material that is biocompatible.
It is also known as bone transplanting. This is a surgical procedure used to replace a missing bone to repair bone fractures that are complex, fail to heal in right way or pose a substantial health risk to the patient. It is that is used to repair problems with joints or bone, especially from trauma. It is also useful in ensuring that bone grows around an implanted device properly.
Is a procedure used to install a dental crown after damage. Normally, it requires at least two visits to a dentist. In the first visit, dentist examines the teeth to ensure it can support the crown then starts filling the crown to ensure it can support the crown. The dentist then takes an impression of the teeth and send to the dental lab so that permanent crown is made. In the second visit, the permanent crown is installed. Several types of crowns are available, i.e., porcelain, ceramic, stainless steel, resin, and gold. The procedure can be undertaken for cosmetic reasons or repair damaged the tooth.
It is a procedure done by a dentist. A bridge is a fixed dental prosthesis used to replace a missing tooth by permanently joining an artificial tooth with an adjacent dental implant or teeth. There are four type of dental bridges, i.e., cantilever bridge, Maryland Bridge, traditional bridge and implant supported bridges.
This is a visit to a dentist. The dentist will carry out an inspection of the teeth and surrounding soft tissue to identify problems one may not be feeling or seeing. People with low risk for dental diseases need to visit a dentist at least once a year while high-risk individuals need 3 to 4 visits a year.
These are orthodontic devices used to straighten and align teeth and possibly position them with regards to a person’s natural bite. It helps improve a person’s cosmetic appearance and general health.
These are surgical components that are used in dental procedures to create an interface between the jawbone or the skull to support dental prostheses like bridges, facial prostheses, denture, crown or to act just as an orthodontic anchor.
This is a technique that is used to rehabilitate an edentulous patient or a patient whose teeth are badly broken down, decayed or compromised due to gum disease. It is a prosthodontics surgical technique in which all the teeth will get supported on four dental implants. The four implant support a prosthesis with fixed 10-14 teeth that place immediately after surgery. All-on-four implant has the following benefits, i.e., shorter installation time, prevent future bone loss, and ensure the arch is restored fully.
Cosmetic Dentistry Consultation
A cosmetic dentist is a dental practitioner that will help you change your appearance by changing your smile, gum, bite, and teeth. The consultation focuses on improving one's appearance regarding position, size, color, shape, and smile. The consultation helps you get a professional opinion before you make any final decisions.
Bariatric Surgery 6 procedures
Bariatric Surgery Consultation
This is a weight loss procedure. Currently, most are performed laparoscopically. These include sleeve gastrostomy, adjustable gastric band, gastric bypass and Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch. This consultation will provide you with details about this procedure and go on to offer details of procedure relevant to thee. We will endeavor to explain to you how the procedures work and how it will help you achieve your desired weight.
Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS)
Its a procedure similar to a gastric bypass. It involves creating a small stomach pouch then rerouting the intestines. The procedure has several advantages and some disadvantages. In this procedure, surgeons create a small stomach and rest of stomach removed. The small bowel is then divided into two parts. The end of the small bowel is connected to the stomach so that food passes directly from the small stomach to it and the bypassed piece that contains bile and important digestive enzymes connected to last part of the ileum. Food and the enzymes will meet in this area where digestion takes place. The patients thus digest efficiently and eat less food. This leads to weight loss and correction of metabolic syndrome.
Gastric Band Surgery
This is a weight loss surgery. In it, the surgeon places a band around the upper part of one's stomach hence creating a small pouch to hold food. The band will help limit the quantity of food one can take by making one feel early satiety after consuming small food. The procedure is currently performed laparoscopically.
Gastric Balloon Treatment
This is weight loss treatment modality where a deflated balloon is inserted endoscopically inside one's stomach via the esophagus then filled with a sterile saline solution. It causes a person to feel full faster hence eats less food.
Gastric Bypass Surgery
This is a surgical procedure where the stomach is divided into a smaller upper pouch and a much larger remnant pouch after which the small bowel is rearranged to connect with both. It is currently performed endoscopically. It used to manage type 2 diabetes, morbid obesity, sleep apnea, etc.
This is a surgical procedure done to induce weight loss in a patient. Partial gastrostomy is done in which a larger portion of the stomach will be removed leaving only 15% of its original weight intact. It permanently reduced the size of one’s stomach despite the fact that sometimes dilation may occur later in life. In can be achieved through an open or laparoscopic surgery.
Cardiology 13 procedures
Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Closure
An ASD is a congenital heart defect in the atrial septum that results in leakage oxygen-rich blood from left atrium to the right atrium. This increases the work of workload of the right side of the heart and if not corrected early can lead to heart failure. The defect if small can be corrected by cardiac catheterization usually by a pediatric cardiologist. A large defect often needs open heart procedures.
This is the systematic examination of a patient’s cardiovascular system with the aim of diagnosing cardiovascular problems. The assessment encompasses taking a comprehensive history of a patient, carrying out a thorough physical examination of a patient and finally doing investigations such as electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, central venous pressure, etc.
It is a type of cardiac catheterization procedure. It is performed for both interventional and diagnostic purposes. In this procedure, a dye that is radiopaque is injected into the blood vessels of one’s heart. An X-ray machine is then used to take serial images (angiograms) that give a picture of how the blood vessels are. Based on the finding, an interventional cardiologist will open the clogged vessels (angioplasty).
Also known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) Thais is a procedure that is used to widen narrowed or blocked coronary arteries. The procedure is carried out by an interventional cardiologist. When combined with stenting, it is referred to as percutaneous coronary intervention. Is should be done within thirty minutes to 2 hours after a having a cardiac event.
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery
Also referred to as colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery or coronary artery bypass surgery. It is an operation done restore normal blood flow to obstructed coronary vessels hence used to manage coronary heart disease. The surgery has two main approaches, i.e., diversion of the internal thoracic artery to the left anterior descending artery in the left coronary vessel and using the great saphenous vein to create a connection between the aorta or its branch to the obstructed artery distance to the obstruction.
This is a hospital checkup and review by a qualified cardiologist. It involves patient assessment, treatment planning, diagnosis and cardiac interventions.
This is a cardiothoracic operation that involves the replacement of a composite graft of the aortic root, ascending aorta and the aortic valve with implantation of coronary arteries into the graft.
This is a painless imaging modality that uses x-rays to take detailed images of one’s heart and its blood vessels. It may or may not be done with intravenous contrast agents. The modern multidetector CT (MDCT) is highly sensitive.
Atrioventricular Fistula Treatment
This is a procedure used to correct abnormal connections between the atria and ventricles of one's heart. The surgery requires the deformity be repaired to ensure that the correct flow of blood in one’s heart is achieved.
Aortic Valve Repair
This is a procedure done to repair or replace aortic valves damaged by disease. Aortic valves are one of the four heart valves that help regulate the flow of blood in the heart. The surgeon will remove the damaged valves and replace them with a prosthetic one which is then screwed into place. The valves can be mechanical (made of artificial materials like carbon) or biological, i.e., from animal or human tissue.
Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD) Treatment
Atrioventricular Septal Defect is a congenital malformation of the heart that allows the mixing of blood from the right and left sides of the heart. It can be due to the absence of the persistence of fetal interatrial foramen or the complete absence of part or whole of the septum. The management of the condition is surgical.
Aortopulmonary Window Repair
Aortopulmonary Window is a rare defect of the heart in which there is a hole connecting the aorta and the pulmonary artery abs a result failure of the conotructal ridges to fuse. As spontaneous closure does not occur, once a diagnosis is made, Aortopulmonary Window Repair surgery is the only solution.
24 Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring
This allows a patient’s blood pressure to be measured at regular intervals (20-30 minutes) over a 24 hour period, whether the patient is asleep or awake. The BP will be measure as one goes about the activities of his daily life. It helps to detect masked hypertension, sustained hypertension and white coat hypertensions. It is also good in situations like BP change due to medication, pregnancy related hypertension, borderline hypertension, fainting episodes and when it is difficult to control BP with drugs.
Diagnostic Imaging 9 procedures
Full Body PET CT Scan
This is an imaging modality that allows physicians to see diseases in one’s body. It utilizes a special dye that has a radioactive tracer. This tracer is injected into one's vein and after that distributed in the body where it’s absorbed by tissues and organs. It helps doctor s to see how well they are working. It measures oxygen use, glucose metabolism, blood flow, etc. It helps show problems at cellular level hence useful in detecting brain disorders, heart problems, central nervous system problems like seizure and memory disorders. It also shows the response to cancer to chemotherapy.
MRI Scan Magnetic Resonance Imaging
This is an imaging modality that used strong radio waves and magnetic field to produce imaged of the internal structure of the body. The scanner itself is a large tube that comprises powerful magnets. One lies inside the tube while getting scanned. The machine can produce two type of images, i.e., T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. Sometimes, contrast is used to enhance the images.
This is a type of medical ultrasonography that is used to visualize anatomical structures of the abdomen. It uses the reflection and transmission of sound waves to visualize internal organs of the body via the wall of the abdomen.
Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD)
This is a test used to assess the health of ones. It helps provides information regarding the fragility or strength of one's bones. The test measures the amount of calcium and other minerals
This a radiograph of the chest used to diagnose chest diseases injuries. It is done using an X-ray machine that passes X-rays through the chest into a film to create the image.
CT Scan (Computed Tomography)
This is a modern imaging technique that makes use of that makes use of computed processed X-ray measurements that are taken at different angles to produce tomographic images of specific areas of objects scanned thereby allowing the user to see the internal structure of the object without physically cutting them. It is used in the diagnosis, screening or prevention of diseases.
This is noninvasive imaging modality that involves exposing parts of one’s body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce images of inside the body. They are used for investigating patient’s complaints, e.g., chronic cough, abdominal pains, bone injuries and fever.
This is an imaging test that is done to examine the blood vessels in ones kidneys. It helps reveal blockages aneurysms or stenosis in the kidneys. Radiologist inject a contrast agent into arteries that bring blood to the kidney and X-rays used to monitor the flow. Fluoroscopy can also be used.
Abdominal CT Scan
This is a diagnostic radiological imaging test that is done to help detect diseases of the colon, small bowel and other abdominal organs or determine the cause of abdominal pain.it is noninvasive, accurate, fast and painless.
Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) 17 procedures
This is a surgical procedure used to remove the adenoids (lymphoid tissue in the nasopharynx) when they are enlarged hence causing recurrent earache, chronic infections or impaired breathing via the nose. It is performed by an otolaryngologist.
This is an electronic gadget (device) used to replace the functions of the inner ear when it is damaged. The implant does the work of the Cochlear by generating sound signals for the brain. It is thus useful in persons with profound or moderate hearing loss bilaterally. The device helps one to her better. Cochlear implant surgery is done by ENT Surgeon.
These are surgeries done on the larynx to remove various pathologies such as laryngeal cancer, laryngeal papilloma, laryngeal granulomas, etc. Total laryngectomy (open) is the complete removal of the larynx while partial is incomplete removal. This normally depends on the location and stage of cancer. Endoscopic laryngeal surgeries are getting common. Microlaryngeal surgeries are used to operate on one's vocal cord. Laser surgery is a recent addition.
It is a test done to test one’s ability to perceive sound. The machine used to do the test is called an audiometer. It measures ones hearing acuity based on variations in sound tone, pitch, and intensity. It helps grade conduction deafness and rules out sensorineural hearing loss.
This is the surgical removal of the larynx and then separating it from the nose, esophagus and the moth. It can be total or partial. In total, the entire larynx is removed while in partial, only a portion is exercised. It is commonly used in the treatment of laryngeal cancers. It is a procedure performed by ENT surgeons.
Sleep Apnea Surgery
This surgery is only done when other treatment modalities are exhausted. The list of surgical options that can be done to treat sleep apnea includes: tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy, tracheostomy, radiofrequency ablation, maxilla-mandibular advancement, palatal surgery, bariatric surgery, nerve stimulation and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.
This is the surgical removal of part or whole of the thyroid tissue. The Parathyroid gland is usually preserved. It can be partial thyroidectomy where part of the thyroid is preserved, or it can be total thyroidectomy where the whole of the thyroid tissue is removed. It is commonly indicated for lived conditions like goiter, thyroid malignancies, etc.
This is the endoscopic examination of the larynx and the back of the throat. The larynx is part of the throat. The procedure is carried out ear nose and throat specialists. There are two types of laryngoscopy procedures, i.e., direct laryngoscopy and indirect laryngoscopy.
This is a procedure done to correct perforation in the pars tensa of the eardrum. When the procedure is combined with the reconstruction of the ear ossicles, the procedure is termed tympanoplasty. The operation is normally done while the patient is lying supine with the face turned to one side such that the side being operated lies upward. The procedure is carried out otolaryngologists. There are two major techniques currently being used, i.e., the overlay technique and the underlying technique.
Ossicular Chain Reconstruction
This is a procedure done to treat conductive deafness. It sis a middle ear procedure that is performed by otolaryngologists. Damage middle ear bones i.e. stapes, malleus and incus can be replaced in the process.
This is a procedure done to straighten the nasal septum that lies between the two nasal septums. The submucous septum is resected and reconstructed. It is done to correct a nasal septum that deviates.
This is a surgical operation done to reconstructs the eardrum or the middle ear bones. There are five type of Tympanoplasty procedures i.e. type l to type V Tympanoplasty procedures.
This is a surgical procedure in which the fibrofatty content of the neck is removed as a treatment for metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. Head and neck malignances commonly metastasize to the cervical lymph nodes. There are various surgical options available i.e. radical neck dissection, modified radical neck dissection, selective neck dissection and extended radical neck dissection.
This is the surgical removal of part or whole of the tongue. It is done to manage malignant tumors like oral cancers.
Facial Nerve Paralysis - Nerve Repair
Dynamic and static reconstruction procedures are employed for facial reanimation in patients suffering from facial nerve paralysis. However, dynamic strategies tend to be more successful and fruitful and should be offered to each patient considering reconstruction, unless health risk contraindications exist. The most common approaches for reconstruction are direct facial nerve repair with or without grafting, nerve transfer, cross-facial nerve grafting, and muscle transfer (either regional muscle or free-muscle neurotized transfer)
A mastoidectomy is surgery to remove cells in the hollow, air-filled spaces in the skull behind the ear. These cells are called mastoid air cells. This surgery used to be a common way to treat an infection in mastoid air cells. In most cases, the condition was caused by an ear infection that spread to the bone in the skull. Mastoidectomy may be used to treat colesteatoma, complications of an ear infection (otitis media), infections of the mastoid bone that do not get better with antibiotics and to place a cochlear implant
Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which both palatine tonsils are removed from a recess in the side of the pharynx called the tonsillar fossa.
Gynecology 21 procedures
Cervical Polyp Removal
Cervical polyps are figure –shaped, red smooth growths in one's cervix. They commonly present as abnormal per vaginal bleed. They occur in multiparous women after the age of 20. They are diagnosed during a pelvic exam. There are removed surgically by gently twisting then tying its base before removing via special forceps. A solution then applied to stop any bleed.
This is a procedure where the gynecologist surgical destroys the uterine endometrium. Various tools are utilized during the procedure. These may include heated fluid, high energy radio frequencies, extreme cold and microwave energy. Goal is to treat abnormal uterine bleeding by reducing one's menstrual flow.
It is a new alternative technique to open surgeries. It allows a surgeon to look into one's pelvis. It can be sued to remove adhesions, manage ectopic pregnancies, manage ovarian cysts, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and myomectomy, do female sterilization (tubal ligation), diagnose & treat endometriosis and cancer investigation and lymph node sampling in cancer treatment.
Antenatal Care (ANC)
This is a type of preventive health care that aims at providing expectant mothers regular checkups to prevent and treat potential health care problems in the course of pregnancy while at the same time creating awareness on healthy living for the benefit of child and mother.
Bartholin's Cyst Treatment
This is a fluid-filled cyst (swelling) of the Bartholin gland. Treatment involves surgical drainage, warm baths, and antibiotics. Marsupialization can often be done to deal with the problem permanently.
This is a procedure used to get rid of abnormal (precancerous or cancerous) cells in a woman’s cervix. It is performed by a gynecologist using electricity, corrosive material, laser, heat or cold. Commonly used methods involve cryocauterization or electrocoagulation.
This is a medical procedure used perinatal to diagnoses fetal infections and chromosomal abnormalities and also determine the sex of a child. A small amount of amniotic fluid that contains fetal tissues is samples from the amniotic sac containing the fetus then DNA analysis is done.
This is a procedure used to obtain a sample of a tumor in the breast for purposes of laboratory and histological analysis. Various breast sampling techniques are available, e.g., FNA, incisional biopsy, excisional biopsy, and core biopsy.
This is a treatment for cervical insufficiency or incompetence where the cervix shortens and open too early in a pregnancy leading to a pregnancy loss (preterm birth or miscarriage). The most commonly done cervical Cerclage technique is MacDonald’s stitch.
This is a surgical; procedure where a small amount of tissue is taken out from the cervix. The sample collected is taken to the laboratory for histological analysis to determine whether there is cancer and if present, which type. It is commonly done after abnormalities are detected in a Pap smear or routine pelvic exam including VIA/VILI. There are three types of biopsies, i.e., cone biopsy, endocervical curettage and punch biopsy.
Adhesions are scar tissue bands that form between organs in the body. They form as parts of the body’s natural repair mechanisms respond to tissues disturbances like infections, surgery, radiation, pathologies or trauma. Adhesiolysis is a surgery meant to remove these adhesions so that normal organ functions and anatomy is restored and pain relieved. They are managed via laparoscopic or open surgical procedures.
This is the clinical examination of one's breasts by medical practitioners to check them for any abnormalities. The physical exam is done by the health professional during one's routine medical checkup or when someone has complications related to breast. The exam should only be carried out by a professional trained in breast exam techniques. The results will be complemented either by mammograms or breast ultrasound.
This is the surgical removal of uterine fibroids especially symptomatic ones. The procedure aims to conserve the uterus for possible future deliveries.
Ectopic Pregnancy Surgery
This is an emergency exploratory laparotomy surgical procedure done to manage a raptured ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancies are extra uterine pregnancies.
This is the surgical removal of the uterus. It is a procedure done by gynecologists. It can either be total (where the entire uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix and upper third of vagina is resected) or partial. The option depend upon the patient choice and the indication for the operation.
This is a surgical procedure done to remove a portion of the lactiferous duct. It is the standard treatment for nipple discharges that arise from a single duct. The procedure can be done under guidance of a ductoscope.
Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE)
This is a procedure that is performed by interventional radiologist. A catheter is used to deliver small particles that then block uterine body blood supply. Common indications include adenomyosis and uterine fibroids.
Hysteroscopy gets its name from the thin, lighted tool used to view the womb, called a hysteroscope. This tool sends images of the inside of the womb to a video monitor. Before the procedure, you will be given medicine to help you relax and block pain. Sometimes, medicine is given to help you fall asleep. During the procedure the provider places the scope through the vagina and cervix, into the womb, gas or fluid may be placed into the womb so it expands. This helps the provider see the area better and pictures of the womb can be seen on the video screen.
Laparoscopic Myomectomy uses a small telescope placed through the belly button along with several small instruments to remove fibroids from the uterus. The technique of actually removing the fibroid from the uterus is similar to that of an abdominal myomectomy except we use small instruments placed through the abdominal wall. Once the fibroid is freed from the uterus it needs to be removed from the abdomen. In order to remove a large fibroid from a small incision we use an instrument called a morcellator, to cut it into pieces small enough to be removed through the small incisions.
Also known as an "open" myomectomy, an abdominal myomectomy is a major surgical procedure. It involves making an incision through the skin on the lower abdomen, known as a "bikini cut," and removing the fibroids from the wall of the uterus. The uterine muscle is then sewn back together using several layers of stitches. You will be asleep during the procedure. Blood loss during the surgery may require a blood transfusion. Some women store their blood before the operation in order to receive their own blood rather than blood from the blood bank. Most women spend two nights in the hospital and four to six weeks recovering at home. After the procedure, you will have a four-inch horizontal scar near your pubic hair or "bikini" line.
Hysteroscopic myomectomy is a technique that can be performed only if fibroids are within or bulging into the uterine cavity (submucosal). This procedure is performed without any incisions and virtually no postoperative discomfort. Anesthesia is needed because the surgery may take one to two hours and would otherwise be uncomfortable. A small telescope, the hysteroscope, is passed through the cervix and the inside of the uterine cavity can be seen. A small camera is attached to the telescope and the view is projected on a video monitor. This magnifies the picture and also allows the physician to perform the surgery while sitting in a comfortable position.
Neurosurgery 11 procedures
These are a surgical procedure where bone flaps are temporarily removed from the skull to give access to the brain. The bone flaps are created by specialized tools. Sometimes it’s done under the guidance of CT scans or MRI scans to localize the areas of treatment (stereotactic Craniotomy). A craniotomy is used in stereotactic biopsy of the brain, stereotactic radiosurgery & stereotactic aspiration of hematomas, cysts or abscesses. A craniotomy is also useful in aneurysmal clipping and removal of brain tumors. Are of various types, i.e., translabarynthine Craniotomy, retro-sigmoid Craniotomy, extended bifrontal Craniotomy and supra-orbital Craniotomy.
Peripheral Nerve Surgery
This is practiced by surgeons from various backgrounds with expertise in plastic and reconstructive surgery, neurology, pain medicine, and orthopedics hence the need for a multidisciplinary care. The surgeries included entrapment neuropathies, nerve sheath tumors like schwannomas and acute nerve injuries.
Subdural Hematoma (SDH) Surgery
SDH is an intracranial hemorrhage that takes place beneath the meningeal Dura matter and may be associated with other traumatic brain injuries. They can be spontaneous, iatrogenic like from lumbar punctures or traumatic. SDH can be acute or chronic. SDH surgery involves a craniotomy to decompress brain tissue, stop active bleeding and possibly evacuate the hematoma.
Brain Aneurysm Repair
This is an endovascular surgical procedure. A catheter is usually guided via a small cut in one's groin to an artery and then passed through the vessel to the brain where an aneurysm is situated. Alternatively, the surgery can be performed alongside open craniotomy.
Brain Tumor Surgery
Surgery is the common modality for managing many malignant and most benign tumors. The operation is performed by a neurosurgeon. It helps relieve seizures, remove tumors, take biopsies and enable chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Common techniques used include craniotomy, craniotomy, partial or complete removal, shunting, transsphenoidal surgery, LITT, etc.
This is the surgical repair of a deformity or defect in the skull. The defect is normally as a result of a previous injury or surgery. It might also be a congenital defect. The surgery is performed for cosmetic reasons and patient psychological wellbeing.
Chiari Malformation Treatment
Chiari Malformation is a condition in which tissues of the brain protrude into the spinal canal via the foramen magnum. This can lead to hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Treatment involves monitoring of the condition and surgery. Surgical procedures done include Decompressive craniectomy & laminectomy.
Brachial Plexus Injury Treatment
An operation to correct brachial plexus injuries should be performed within 6-7 months the injury as, beyond this period, the prognosis is poor. Teat such as MRI, CT, nerve conduction studies and electromyogram are usually done to determine the extent of the injury. Treatment can either be surgically or non-surgical, i.e., occupational therapy or physiotherapy or splinting /orthosis.
This is a procedure done to treat epilepsy in order to reduce or stop the seizures. There are different types of epilepsy surgical procedure. This includes removal of the area in the brain causing this seizures or separating the part of the brain causing these tumors from the rest.
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Surgery
This is a surgical procedure that is done to implant a device that send electrical stimulus signals to brain regions responsible for body movement. Electrode is placed deep in the brain and then connected to a stimulating device. DBS helps remove symptoms of slowness of movement, tremor, walking problems and stiffness that is caused by dystonia, essential tremor or Parkinsonism disease.
Skull Base Surgery
This is minimally invasive, highly specialized neurosurgical technique for diagnosis, evaluating and treating cancerous or benign growths located on the base of the skull, the upper vertebrae of the spine and the underside of the brain.
Oncology 25 procedures
Breast Cancer Treatment
Treatment of breast cancer depends on the stage. The treatment may involve radiotherapy, surgery or medications. The types of surgeries used included mastectomy (radical mastectomy or simple mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, patery modified radical mastectomy), breast-conserving surgery, lumpectomy and lymph node dissection. Medical therapy involves chemotherapy for breast cancer or systemic hormonal therapy like tamoxifen.
Cervical Cancer Treatment
Treatment of cervical cancer depends on the stage though other factors like the site of the tumor, ones desire for children, overall health, age, and type of cancer. While in stage 0 (CIS), the condition can be managed by loop electrosurgical procedure, simple hysterectomy, cone biopsy, cryotherapy and laser therapy. At stage 1a, cone biopsy is preferred. At stage 1A2, cone biopsy or radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection is preferred, but for those who don’t desire fertility, EBRT and radical hysterectomy are desirable. At stage 1B and 2A, surgery and radiation or concurrent chemoradiation are desirable. At stage 2B, 3 and 4A chemo-radiation is used. At stage 4B, chemo-radiotherapy to try to slow down the tumor.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to treat diseases. But in medicine, it is commonly used when referring to the medical treatment of cancer that utilizes one or more antineoplastic medications as part of a standardized chemotherapeutic regimen. They are given with the intent to reduce symptoms, prolong life or cure cancer. Each cancer has a specific regiment that has been prepared for its management. Medical oncologists administrate chemotherapeutic regiment.
Acute Leukemia Treatment
The statement of acute leukemia depends on the subtype of leukemia. Treatment empathizes long-term cemetery with antineoplastic drugs. Various combination of chemotherapeutic agents has been developed for various leukemias. Oncologist use chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy and stem cell transplant.
Its a kind of radiotherapy where a sealed source of radiation is next to or inside the place needing treatment. A radioactive material is placed inside the body hence sometimes referred to as internal radiation. It is used in the management of cancer of the prostate, skin, cervical and breast and other tumors in the body. It can be used together with chemotherapy, surgery or EBRT.
Bladder Cancer Treatment
Medical and surgical modalities are used treatment of bladder cancer. The surgery done is either partial or complete Cystectomy. This involves partial or complete removal of the bladder. Medical therapy includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
The goal of this exercise is to detect cancers before their symptoms manifest. The test encompasses medical imaging, blood tests, urinalysis and other tests. It is common knowledge that the benefit of having a cancer screen done outweighs outweigh anybody harm that may result from the process. When cancerous tissues are detected early, they are easy to cure or treat. The most common cancers that are routinely screened are breast, colon, oral, prostate, pancreatic, lung, bowel and cervical cancers.
Whipple Procedure also known as kaush-Whipple Procedure, pancretoduodectopmy, pancreaticoduodenectomy is a major surgical procedure dome to remove cancer of head of pancreas. It involves the removal of the common bile duct, the gallbladder, the duodenum and portions of the stomach.
Chronic Leukemia Treatment
The treatment of chronic leukemia depend on a person’s age, reason for treatment, disease risk group, stage of cancer, signs and symptoms of disease, patient preference and overall health. Treatment options included targeted drug therapy, chemotherapy, bone marrow transplant, and immunotherapy.
Glioblastoma (Glioblastoma multiform) is a malignant tumor that affects the spinal cord and the brain. It is usually quite aggressive hence can spread quickly and grow fast. Treatment includes radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery (craniotomy and radiosurgery).
Laryngeal Cancer Treatment
Laryngeal Cancer is a condition which cancerous cells form from larynx tissues. The most common presentation include ear pain and sore throat. Laryngectomy (total) in addition to thyroidectomy and nodal removal followed by radiotherapy is the most common mode of treatment.
Staging is the process used to find out the amount of cancer in the body and their locations. The information is used by doctors to formulate the patient treatment plan and to determine their prognosis. There are four different ways staging is done i.e. pathological staging, post-neoadjuvanat or post-therapy staging, clinical staging and restaging (done when cancer recurs after treatment). The four factors used in staging include: site of primary tumor, the tumor size, the involvement of lymph nodes and metastases. Tests done to enable staging process include imaging tests, pathological tests, surgical reports, laboratory tests and physical examination.
This is a non-invasive treatment for benign and malignant tumors and other conditions that need radiotherapy. It is a flameless radiosurgery robotic system that uses targeted radiation to destroy tumor in the body. It is designed to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues and organs to radiation. It is pain free, does not need hospitalization or general anesthesia, spare healthy tissues, non-invasive and one only need one to five sessions to complete treatment.
Head and Neck Cancer Treatment (Throat Cancer)
Treatment of head and neck malignancies depend on the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment modalities used in the management of these malignancies included radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy. Surgical options included laser technology, excision, neck dissection or lymph node dissection, and reconstructive surgery. Target therapy is available.
High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)
This is a new medical technology that is under development and can be used to treat a wide range of disorderds.it is a treatment modality that aims to kill cancerous cells using high frequency sound waves. It is only useful in the management of a single tumor or a section of a larger tumor hence not useful for highly malignant cancers.
Adrenal Cancer Treatment
Treatment of adrenal cancer depend on the stage. Stage 1 and two are treated surgically which may be combined with radiotherapy or mitotane administration. Stage 3 is treated surgically. This may be preceded by adjuvant radiotherapy or mitotane. For stage 4, a debulking surgery is done followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Bile Duct Cancer Treatment
Treatment of this condition depend on the stage. Medical procedure used included chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolization, ERCP and radiotherapy. Surgical options available include hepatectomy and pancreatic tumor removal surgery.
Lymph Node Biopsy
A lymph node biopsy is the removal of lymph node tissue for examination under a microscope. The lymph nodes are small glands that make white blood cells (lymphocytes), which fight infection. Lymph nodes may trap the germs that are causing an infection. Cancer often spreads to lymph nodes. A lymph node biopsy is done in an operating room in a hospital. Or, it is done at an outpatient surgical center.
Blood Cancer Treatment (Leukemia)
Leukaemia is cancer of blood-forming tissues, including bone marrow. Many types exist such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Bone Cancer Treatment
Signs and symptoms of bone cancer include Bone pain, Swelling and tenderness near the affected area, Weakened bone, leading to fracture, Fatigue, Unintended weight loss.
Liver cancer Treatment (hepatic cancer)
Cancer that begins in the cells of the liver. Symptoms are uncommon in the early stages of liver cancer. Later, symptoms may include weight loss, stomach pain, vomiting and yellowed skin.
Lung Cancer Treatment
A cancer that begins in the lungs and most often occurs in people who smoke. Two major types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Causes of lung cancer include smoking, second-hand smoke, exposure to certain toxins and family history.
Prostate Cancer Treatment (prostatic carcinoma)
A cancer in a man's prostate, a small walnut-sized gland that produces seminal fluid. A man's prostate produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Symptoms include difficulty with urination, but sometimes there are no symptoms at all.
Mouth Cancer Treatment (Oral cancer)
Cancer that develops in any part of the mouth. Risk factors include tobacco use, heavy alcohol use and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Symptoms include a sore that doesn't heal, a lump or a white or red patch on the inside of the mouth.
Gamma Knife Radiosurgery
Gamma Knife Radiosurgery is a procedure that uses radiation to treat brain tumours and anomalies of the brain. Using specialized medical equipment, high number of radiation beams are passed exactly on the tumor in the brain. This is highly precise technique and causes negligible damage to tissues near the tumor. All the beams combine on the tumor and create a strong radiation, thereby destroying the tumor.
Orthopedics 24 procedures
A bunion is very painful. They are bony bumps which form at the base of one’s big toe. It normally forms a union between this toe and the 1st metatarsal one. Bunion removal surgery helps correct the area of deformity that forms on foot near the big toe. The surgery is sometimes referred to as hallux valgus correction or bunionectomy.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgery
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is the tingling, numbness, weakness plus other problems in one's hand because of pressure being applied to the median nerve as it traverses the wrist. The small space where it passes through in the wrist called the Carpal Tunnel. This surgery is meant to relive the pressure hence relieving the symptoms. The two types of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgeries are open and endoscopic, all available in India.
This is an orthopedic surgical procedure where a damaged hip is replaced with an implant, i.e., a prosthesis. This procedure can be performed either as hemi-replacement (only femoral head is replaced) or total replacement (i.e., total hip arthroplasty where both the femoral head and acetabulum are replaced).
Knee Replacement (arthroplasty) is an operation used to replace weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve disability and pain. Especially in patients with osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Surgical techniques available include total knee replacement, partial knee replacement and femoral replacement.
Shoulder Replacement (arthroplasty) is an operation in which a prosthesis is used to replace part or all of the glenohumeral joint to relieve disability and pain. It is used to fix shoulder joint damage or relieve arthritic pain. We have the traditional shoulder total shoulder arthroplasty and the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty approach. The latter has two approaches, i.e., the deltopectoral approach and the transdeltoid approach.
Its an ankle replacement surgery done to replace damaged joint articular surfaces with prosthetic implants. It is currently a more preferred option than arthrodesis.
Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI)
This is a new type of orthopedic procedure that is used to manage to isolate full thickness joint articular surface defect in the knees. It is performed in three stages where about 2000-300 milligrams of cartilage is sampled from a less weight bearing area of a joins, isolated enzymatically then grown in a lab for six weeks before transplanting in damaged areas so that they grow and form new cartilage.
Knee Ligament Surgery (ACL)
This is a procedure done to treat knee ligament tears. It is currently done as a laparoscopic procedure, but open surgery is still practiced in some regions of the world. It helps reduce pain and improve stability in the joint.
Benign Bone Tumor Removal
Benign Bone Tumors are not cancers hence do not metastasize to other areas of the body. They however greatly weaken a one. Common one tumor include giant cell tumors, osteoid osteoma, osteochondroma, and osteoblastoma. Treatment involves surgical excision of the tumor or scrapping out (curettage) of the tumor with bone grafting.
Congenital Hip Dislocation Treatment
Congenital Hip Dislocation is also known as developmental dysplasia of the hip. It is a condition where a child is born with an unstable joint due to abnormal formation of the joint in early fetal development stages. It is more common in girls than boys. Screening for the condition occurs at birth and in the first year of life. A baby younger than 6 years is treated using a Pavlik harness. If this fails, the condition is managed via surgery. Surgical options include open reduction or closed reduction, after which the hip and leg are placed in a cast for at least 12 weeks. A child who is 18 months or older is managed by pelvic or femoral osteotomy to reconstruct their hip.
Achilles Tendon Rupture
This is a complete tear through the tendon, usually about two inches from the calcaneal (heel) bone. The tendon it vital to activities like jumping, walking or running. The rupture is common in those suffering from Achilles tendinitis, illnesses like diabetes or on drugs like steroids and antibiotics. Surgery is essential for faster healing. However, a cast can be used to allow the leg heal naturally but will take quite long.
Ankle Fracture Treatment
Ankle fractures can be treated surgically or non-surgically. The method will depend on the degree of injury and the patient’s choice. The non-surgical options include casting and splinting.
This is the removal of a limb by surgery, medical or trauma. As a surgical measure, it is used to control a disease process affected limb like gangrene and malignancy or to control pain. It may also be carried of prophylactically to prevent these problems.
Bone Fracture Treatment
Treatment depend on the severity of the fracture, patient choice and cost of treatment. Medically, reduction is done to fix a dislocated or Brocken bone. Devices available to fix fracture include orthopedic casts, splints, elastic bandages, and traction splint. Therapeutic physical therapy and joint manipulation can be done. Surgery included internal and external fixation.
Club foot is also known as congenital talipes equinovarus. It is a combination of four thing in one i.e. cavus, adductus, varus and equinus. There are several types of clubfoot. It is a highly disabling condition if not managed early. The condition can be managed Non-operatively by Ponseti technique, Kite technique and French technique. Surgical options included: Posteromedial soft tissue release, Osteotomies, Triple arthrodesis, Achilles tenotomy and JESS.
This s a procedure done to replace elbow joint that has been damaged by disease or trauma. It is indicated in severe loss of function, instability, joint destruction, severe pain or deformity. It is successful in relieving people of pain and improving the overall quality of life of the patient.
Knee Ligament Surgery (MCL)
The MCL is one of the four ligaments of the knee. A Knee Ligament Surgery is done to treat torn ligament as a result of injurer. As the MCL surgery is located outside the joint, no surgical key hole are usually necessary. The torn ligament can be reattached with staples, screws and screws through a small incision.
These is a surgical procedure that is done to teat or diagnose knee joint problems like injuries and diseases. During the procedure, a small incision is made and an Arthroscope (tiny camera) inserted into the knees therapy allowing the examiner to see the inside of the joint on a live screen.
Ankle Fusion Surgery
Also known as ankle arthrodesis, is a surgical procedure done to fuse the different bones that make up the ankle joint into one piece. It is done when the joint become painful and worn out due to disease or previous trauma.
The procedure is also known as total ankle arthroplasty. It is an orthopedic procedure done to replace the ankle joint articular surfaces that have been damaged by disease or injury with prosthetic components. It is done to treat ankle arthritis.
Artificial Limb Services
These services are provided to patient whose limb have been amputated so that they are able to walk again and improve their quality of life. The patient’s needs will be assessed on an individual basis and a variety of prosthetic equipment make available to support ones upper and lower limbs. Rehabilitative service are provided try a dedicated team of specialists.
Abscess is by infectious process that features collection of pus that is surrounded by inflamed tissue. The Debridement entails incision and drainage of the lesion followed by packing then proper dressing of the wound. The patient is then made to undergo a course of antibiotics.
Acromioclavicular Joint Repair
Acromioclavicular Joint is the meeting point of the clavicle and acromion joint in the shoulder. Injuries in the joint result from trauma, fall or sports. Conservative treatment is used in management of minor injuries. Sever injuries need surgery. This may be done through an open procedure or arthroscopy. This are employed in the reconstruction of the joint.
Knee Arthroscopy is a surgical technique that can diagnose and treat problems in the knee joint. During the procedure, your surgeon will make a very small incision and insert a tiny camera - called an arthroscope - into your knee. This allows them to view the inside of the joint on a screen.
Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery 4 procedures
Also known as tummy task is a cosmetic procedure that is done to make the abdomen firm and thinner. It involves the removal of excess skin and fat from the lower and middle abdomen to tighten the fascia and muscles of the wall of the abdomen. The procedure is sought after by patient with sagging or loose tissue, especially after marked weight loss or pregnancy. Types of Abdominoplasty available include high lateral tummy tuck, floating Abdominoplasty, circumferential Abdominoplasty, extended or partial or complete Abdominoplasty and combined procedure, e.g., with liposuction.
It is a prosthesis (saline or silicon) used to change the shape, contour, and size of one's breast. It adds volume to ones existing breast thereby creating a fuller chest. They are used in plastic and reconstructive surgeries to rectify congenital problems, restore natural breast mound after mastectomy or cosmetically in breast argumentation procedures.
Also known as mastopexy .it is a plastic surgery mammoplasty procedure used for raising sagging breast tissue on a lady’s chest by modifying and changing the contour, the elevation, and size of the breasts. Done by women whose breast have changed due to breastfeeding, pregnancy, gravity, aging, heredity and weight fluctuations. The procedure helps rejuvenate one's figure by creating a rest profile that is uplifted and more youthful.
Also known as Brachioplasty, is a procedure to provided increased contour and reshape the upper arms and at the same time connect the area to the chest wall. Techniques for Brachioplasty included minimal incision Brachioplasty, liposuction of the arm, traditional Brachioplasty, fish-incision Brachioplasty, extended Brachioplasty, superficial fascial system suspension, use of molds and non-excisional Brachioplasty.
Spinal Surgery 14 procedures
Artificial Disc Replacement
Sometimes also called total disc replacement or total disc arthroplasty. The procedure involves replacing a painful damaged disc with an artificial disc. The procedure can be performed on the neck (cervical spine) or lumbar spine (lower back). The procedure helps preserve motion in the intervertebral discs. It is performed in patients with damaged discs, e.g., due to disease or cervical disc herniation unresponsive to non-surgical management.
Cervical Disc Disease Treatment
The treatment of cervical disc diseases begins when your doctor takes a good history, carries out a physical examination and then order appropriate investigations. The investigations of choice of choice are CT, MRI, and X-rays that will help your doctor localize the problem. Based on this the doctor will decide whether to use the surgical or nonsurgical option. Non-surgical modalities include lifestyle modification, physiotherapy, and analgesia and heat therapy. Surgical option helps one heal fast and include cervical artificial disc replacement and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (available in India).
This is a surgical procedure used to remove areas of the vertebral bones called lamina. Muscles of the back are pushed sideways during the procedure rather than cut and sections of the vertebra adjacent to the lamina left intact. It’s sometimes referred to as decompression surgery. It helps relieve purser on the spinal nerves and spinal cord. Commonly done to manage spinal stenosis.
This is a surgery done on the spine to treat back pain, or other damages are done on the spine by trauma or disease scoliosis, spinal stenosis, and disc herniation. It is recommended when conservative treatments are unsuccessful. It can either be done as an open or minimally invasive procedure. Common surgical approaches are lateral, posterior and anterior. Spinal surgical techniques included laminotomy, laminectomy, microdiscectomy, disc replacement, spinal fusion, and foraminotomy.
This is a surgical operation that involves removing part or all a vertebral body usually as a mean of decompressing the nerves and spinal cord. It is sometimes performed in association with discectomy. It is commonly done in a patient with spinal stenosis due to osteophytes.
This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure sued to treat the compression of the spine following a fracture. The spinal compression fractures usually occur majorly in spinal vertebral bones weakened by osteoporosis. It helps relieve pain and correct deformities.
This is a medical procedure done to relieve pressure applied to nerves that are being compressed by intervertebral foramina. Intervertebral foramina is a passage of the vertebral bone through which nerves bundles pass to the body from the spinal cord. It is performed via a minimally invasive operation where a cut is made in the back then the muscles pushed on to the sides to create a way. The surgeon will then drills a small hole in the vertebral bone.
Cervical Spondylosis Treatment
The management of this condition involves rehabilitative programs like occupational therapy, physical therapy, and recreational therapy. Surgery is advised when neurologic deficits progress, when there is documented spinal cord or cervical nerve root compression and when the pain becomes intractable.
Scoliosis is a condition where ones spine bend LATERALLY (sideways). It arises commonly before pubertal growth spurts.it can be caused by muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy or idiopathic. Surgical OPTIONS include scoliosis fusion surgery and anterior scoliosis corrective surgery (VBT).
Spinal Disc Herniation Treatment (slipped disc)
This condition can be managed medically or surgically. Pain is managed using NSAIDs and therapies like physical therapy, stretching and chiropractic techniques are useful. Medical procedures included epidural steroid injection and therapeutic ultrasound. Spine surgery is the definitive management.
Scoliosis is a condition where ones spine bend LATERALLY (sideways). It arises commonly before pubertal growth spurts. It can be caused by muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy or idiopathic. Surgery is the main modality of treatment. Surgical options include scoliosis fusion surgery and anterior scoliosis corrective surgery (VBT).
Spinal Fusion Surgery
Sometimes also called spondylosyndesis or spondylodesis. It is an operation done to stop motion in segments of the spine (thoracic, lumber or cervical) that are causing a patient pain. It helps to stabilizes and decompress the spine. The procedure involves the use of bone grafts which can either be allografts, autografts or artificial substitutes.
This is a minimally invasive procedure (sometimes referred to as percutaneous discectomy) used to treat patient suffering from problem caused by herniated discs such as leg pain and low back pain. It is performed by an interventional radiologist.
Lumbar Microdiscectomy Surgery
A lumbar microdiscectomy surgery is performed to remove the portion of a herniated disc that is irritating or inflaming the nerve root. A microdiscectomy is performed through a small incision in the midline of the low back. First, the back muscles, called erector spinae, are lifted off the bony arch, called the lamina, of the spine. Since these back muscles run vertically, they can be moved out of the way rather than cut. The surgeon is then able to enter the spine by removing a membrane over the nerve roots. This membrane is called the ligamentum flavum. Often, a small portion of the inside facet joint is removed both to facilitate access to the nerve root and to relieve pressure over the nerve. The nerve root is then gently moved to the side and the disc material is removed from under the nerve root. Only the herniated portion of the disc is removed; the healthy portion of the disc is left intact. After the piece of the disc that is irritating or inflaming the nerve root has been removed, the pressure is off the nerve immediately and it has room to heal. A herniated disc pressing on a nerve root can cause severe leg pain. While it may take weeks or months for the nerve root to fully heal and any numbness or weakness to get better, patients normally feel relief from the leg pain almost immediately after a microdiscectomy.
Urology 16 procedures
Bladder Neck Incision (BNI)
This is a procedure done on men experiencing difficulty passing urine due to benign prostatic enlargement or urinary tract obstruction from a tight prostate. The patient usually presents with frequency, urgency, urine dribbling, hesitancy, poor urine stream and incomplete emptying of the balder. The operation helps relieve these symptoms of obstruction.
This is a surgical procedure that removes part or whole of the prostate gland. It is usually used in the treatment of benign prostatic enlargement (BPH), or prostate canacer.it can be performed in several ways. For prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy is recommended. The current technique for performing this include open radical prostatectomy (retropubic or transvesical), laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. For benign enlarged prostate, simple prostatectomy is recommended. Newer techniques for managing BPH include transurethral resection of the prostate, transurethral laser-induced prostatectomy and Trans-urethral incision of the prostate. Noninvasive techniques include cryotherapy, laser therapy, thermal ablation and balloon dilation.
This is a surgical revision or reconstruction procedure of renal pelvis to decompress or drain the kidneys.it is performed to manage ureteropelvic junction obstructions provided the residual renal function is still adequate. Congenital hydronephrosis is its most common presentation in pediatrics.
This is the removal of the penile foreskin. It is the most commonly performed procedure in the world. In it, the foreskin is opened. Then adhesions removed before being separated from the glans and cut. The penis is then sutured. A recent study indicated that it lowers one's risk of contracting HIV by60%.
This is the surgical removal of part or whole (radical) of the urinary bladder. Sometimes the term is used to refer to the removal of the gallbladder or a cyst. This is commonly performed after a diagnosis of bladder cancer.
Erectile Dysfunction Treatment
Erectile Dysfunction is the inability of a man to keep or get an erection firm to have sexual intercourse. It is commonly described as important. The condition can be managed medically. 1st the patient has to be evaluated for a treatment plan is made, the plan may incorporate assistive devices like pumps or medications.
Bladder Stone Removal
This is a procedure done to remove renal stones that have formed in the bladder or pound their way into the bladder hence causing obstruction and pain. Various procedures are used to remove the stones, e.g., percutaneous suprapubic crystolitholapaxy and open cystostomy.
This is the endoscopic examination of the bladder. During the procedure, an endoscopic tube with a light and camera at the end is inserted into one's urethra, and into your bladder to visualize the inside of the bladder.
Kidney Stones Treatment
The treatment of renal stones included taking a lot of water to help pass these stones and use of painkiller to relive renal colonic pain. Drug used included NSAIDs, diuretics narcotics and urinary retention drugs. Medical procedures that can be done to remove the stones include laser lithotripsy, uteroscopic stone removal and extracorporeal shockwave therapy.
This is a procedure done to take a sample from the prostate for histological analysis. It is dome to detect or diagnose cancer of the prostate especially after blood PSA level; rises to the level of prostate cancer. There are several options that can be used to take the sample i.e. MRI-guided biopsy, ultrasound guided biopsy, Transrectal biopsy and transurethral biopsy.
TURP (Transurethral Resection of Prostate)
Transurethral Resection of Prostate is a surgery to remove the inside part of the prostate gland. It is done in order to treat symptoms of an enlarged prostate. The surgery takes about 1 hour. You will be given medicine before surgery so you don't feel pain. You may get general anesthesia in which you are asleep and pain-free or spinal anesthesia in which you are awake, but relaxed and pain-free. The surgeon will insert a scope through the tube that carries urine from your bladder out of the penis. This tube is called the urethra. A special cutting tool is placed through the scope. It is used to remove the inside part of your prostate gland using electricity.
Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL - Kidney Stone Removal)
Percutaneous (through the skin) urinary procedures help drain urine from your bladder and get rid of kidney stones. A percutaneous nephrostomy is the placement of a small, flexible rubber tube (catheter) through your skin into your kidney to drain your urine. It is inserted through your back or flank. Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (or nephrolithotomy) is the passing of a special medical instrument through your skin into your kidney. This is done to remove kidney stones.
Ureteroscopy (URS) is a form of minimally invasive surgery using a small telescope that is passed through the urethra and into the ureter to remove a stone. Often the stone requires fragmentation with a laser which then allows the smaller fragments to removed with a grasping device.
A penile prosthesis is another treatment option for men with erectile dysfunction (ED). These devices are either malleable or inflatable. The simplest type of prosthesis consists of a pair of malleable (bendable) rods surgically implanted within the erection chambers of the penis.
Radical cystectomy is the removal of the entire bladder, nearby lymph nodes (lymphadenectomy), part of the urethra, and nearby organs that may contain cancer cells. In men , the prostate, the seminal vesicles, and part of the vas deferens are also removed.
Radical prostatectomy is an operation to remove the prostate gland and tissues surrounding it. This usually includes the seminal vesicles and some nearby lymph nodes. Radical prostatectomy can cure prostate cancer in men whose cancer is limited to the prostate.
Colorectal Medicine 7 procedures
This is the resection of whole or part of the large bowel. It is usually necessary to prevent or manage conditions and disease that affect one's colon such as ulcerative colitis, Cohn’s disease, colorectal carcinoma and HNPCC. It can be either laparoscopic or open.
Anal Abscess Drainage
An abscess is an infectious condition characterized by a pus collection surrounded by tissue inflammation. An Anal Abscess forms around the one's anus. It usually starts in the perianal hair follicles or mucus gland. It is managed by incision and drainage of the abscess.
Anal Cyst Removal
A cyst is a sac that is abnormal containing a gas, semisolid material, and membranous lining. The four types of cysts commonly found in the perianal region include dermoid cyst, anal gland cyst, sacrococcygeal teratoma and epidermoid cyst. Treatment involves surgical excision of the cysts.
Anal Fissure Treatment
This is a crack or linear tear in the distal areas of the anal canal. They involve only the epithelium in the short-term, and the entire mucosal thickens in the long-run. 1st line of treatment is medical and involve stool softeners and stool bulking agents. A laxative is also used to maintain normal bowel movements. 2nd line of treatment is surgical where sphincterotomy is done.
Anal Fistula Surgery
An anal fistula is an abnormal connection between the epithelized surface of the anal canal and the perianal skin. It is usually a sequela of an anal abscess. It rarely heals on it own hence need for surgery. The surgery is carried out under GA. There are several surgical options available, i.e., fistulotomy, advancement flap procedure, Seton technique, LIFT procedure, fibrin glue and bioprosthetic plug.
This is a surgical procedure done to treat hemorrhoids. Patient is given either spinal or general anesthesia and then incisions are made around the hemorrhoid tissue. The swollen veins are then used to prevent bleeding and the entire hemorrhoid removed.
Rectocele is a posterior vaginal wall prolapse that occurs when the wall that separates the rectum from the vagina weakens thus allowing the vaginal wall to bulge. It can be managed conservatively by physiotherapy and using vaginal pessaries. Surgical options included colporrrhaphy and rectocele repair. Surgery is the definitive management of this condition.
General Medicine 10 procedures
It is a treatment modality in which the ambient pressure gradient greater than the atmospheric sea pressure is used. It comprises therapeutic recompression (used to manage depression illnesses like air emboli) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
This is the process by which physicians assess the body of a patient for sings disease. In medical practice, it is terms used commonly to refer to is included a clinical examination or physical examination. It is done after a comprehensive history of a patient has been taken. It thus helps in diagnosis and formulating the treatment plan.
This is the physical examination of the abdomen to identify signs of disease; it is done in four stages, i.e., inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation.
Female Health Checkup
This is a gynecological procedure used to assess the female reproductive system. It involved a physical exam of the female perineum and possibly a specular exam, Apart from this various imaging and laboratory tests can be ordered to help the doctor make a proper conclusion.
General Medicine Consultation
This is a visit to a physician or general medical practitioner. The doctor will take the patient history and carry out a physical exam of all systems after which proper investigations are done and a treatment plan formulated.
This is the use of extremely cold temperatures (by liquid nitrogen) in surgery to destroy diseased or abnormal tissue, i.e., it is the use of cryoablation in surgery. It is commonly used to get rid of skin tags, Morton’s neuroma, small skin cancers, moles, and warts.
Deep Wound Treatment
A deep wound is one that cuts deeper than a quarter an inch beneath the skin surface. Due to their depth, this wound is likely to involve damage to tendons, major blood vessels, ligaments or internal organs. This can lead to both external and internal bleeding. These wounds require urgent treatment to avoid complications like shock. The bleeding has to be arrested, then cl4ned and properly dressed. Antibiotics and tetanus vaccine must be administered to the patient.
This is the administration of a vaccine to a person to stimulate their immune system thereby developing adaptive immunity against the target pathogen.
Male Health Checkup
This is a collection of tests and medical checks that are be performed on male person. It varies by age groups. They help detect and prevent health problem before they advance into serious health complications. The history of the man will be taken, them he will undergo a physical examination and finally some routine tests performed on him. The tests may include urinalysis, blood samples, stool samples, x-rays of some parts of the body etc.
Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) Treatment
HSP is a group of inherited conditions whose primary feature is progressive gait disorder. It presents with contraction and spasticity of the lower limbs. Though the condition has no cure, it can be managed. Regular physical therapy is important to improve and maintain the muscle strength and range of movement.
Neurology 10 procedures
Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) Treatment
CCSVI is a term used to describe the compromise of blood flow in veins draining the CNS. Failure to treat the condition can, in the long run, predispose one to multiple sclerosis. It is commonly diagnosed using a Trans-cranial Doppler ultrasound, an MRI scan or Doppler sonography. It can be managed by a surgical procedure known as venous angioplasty where a surgeon will insert a balloon to keep veins open, clear a blockage & restore blood flow to spinal cord and brain.
Parkinson's Disease Treatment
The disease is only diagnosed after a proper history then physical and neurological exam. Imaging scans are not diagnostic by only help rule out other disorders. The disease is not curable but can be controlled using drugs like carbidopa-levodopa, dopamine, MAO-B inhibitors and, COMP inhibitors, anticholinergic and amantadine. When surgery is advisee, deep brain stimulation can be done.
Alzheimer's Disease Consultation
This is the evaluation of a patient suffering from dementia and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. The doctor will assess the patient and prepares an appropriate treatment plan and inform the guardian on hoe w the patient should be cared for, the prognosis and booking future reviews.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Consultation
This is the evaluation of a patient who has ALS. The doctor will assess the patient and formulate an appropriate treatment plan and inform the guardian on hoe w the patient should be cared for, and advise on of follow up.
This is a physician-supervised program that is designed for patients with trauma, disorders or diseases of the nervous system. The program improves one's functions, reduce symptoms and greatly improve the overall well-being of a patient.
Dementia is the overall term used to describe a range of clinical conditions that are associated with the decline in one’s memory or thinking skills to the extent that one is unable to perform his/her normal daily life activities. The treatment if Dementia depends on its cause. Once the cause is determined, the condition will improve once the cause is properly managed.
Epilepsy is recurrent seizes in one’s brain. The management of epilepsy can be done by drugs, and sometimes devices, dietary changes or surgery. Anticonvulsants are the main stray of treatment. This is however influenced by the type of epilepsy, the age of patient, pregnancy or breastfeeding.
This is a headache of that varies in intensity and is often accompanied by sound and light sensitivity and nausea. The condition can be managed by medications. The drugs can either be pain-relieving or preventive. Pain relieving medications included painkillers, triptans, ergots, anti-nausea drugs, opioids, and glucocorticoids. Preventative medications included cardiovascular drugs, antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, painkillers, and Botox.
This is an appointment with a neurologist (physician that has subspecialized in neurology) for treatment, diagnosis or management of disorders that affect the nervous system.
Trigeminal Neuralgia Treatment
Trigeminal Neuralgia is a chronic pain in the face arising from disorders that damage cranial nerve V i.e. trigeminal nerve. Treatment included injections (e.g. Botox injection and glycerol injection), medications (anticonvulsants, and antispasmodic agents) and surgery (microvasculer decompression, brain stereotactic radiosurgery). Other include balloon compression and radiofrequency thermal lesioning.
Reproductive Medicine 3 procedures
It is a type of assisted reproductive technology. In it, the embryologist manipulates the female egg under a microscope so at to create a small hole in its zona pellucida to allow sperms to enter hence fertilize the ovum.
Donor Egg IVF
This is the female products of ovulation form a donor (known or unknown) which is to be fertilized by sperms for implantation into an infertile lady or for other reasons the client's eggs cannot be used.
These are sperms usually from unknown persons that will be used to inseminate a lady for purposes of procreation artificially. A client lady is sometimes allowed to choose the donor.
Nephrology 3 procedures
Kidney Transplant (Living Related Donor)
This is the transplant of a healthy kidney to patients with an end-stage renal disease or no functional kidneys. Kidneys are important because they remove wastes and toxins from the body apart from producing important hormones in the body. The kidney can be taken from a live donor or deceased donor. There recipient and donor can be genetically related or non-related depending on whether a biological relationship existed between them. India has very nice centers where this can be done successfully.
This is a hospital checkup and review by a qualified nephrologist. It involves patient assessment, treatment planning, diagnosis and interventions such as permanent catheter insertion. Patients with acute or chronic kidney disease will require a frequent check-up by a nephrologist. The doctor will also monitor patients undergoing dialysis.
This is a procedure done to manage patients with acute kidney injury or those with end-stage kidney disease. It is needed when one's kidneys are no longer able to meet the body’s needs. It performs normal kidney functions like the removal of wastes. There are two types of dialysis, i.e., peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.
Dermatology 8 procedures
Acne Scar Treatment
The treatment is carried out under the supervision of a dermatologist. There are various agents available in the market that are used in the management of these scars. However, for good result, the agents should only be used after a dermatology consultation.
Acne is an inflammatory papular, pustular, and follicular eruptions involving the pilosebaceous units in the skin. It is treated medical using either local or topical agents by a dermatologist. All drugs used for the management of acne act as Anti-inflammatory, Anti-comedonal and Anti-microbial agents.
This is a type of surgical skin planing procedure. It should only be performed in a hospital by a plastic surgeon or dermatologist. It is done to remove deep-seated acne scars. It is done either under general or local anesthesia.
Warts are small growths on one’s skin that do not result in any pain. Some normally hurt or itch. There are five types of warts, i.e., genital warts, plantar warts, common warts, flat warts and periungual or sublingual warts. They are caused by HPV virus. They are contagious and can be spread via direct contact. Warts in the skin can be removed by applying cantharidin or salicylic acid. They can also be removed by simply cutting them off or using laser and cryotherapy to remove.
This is a visit to a skin specialist. The specialist will take your history and your skin lesions or just the general condition of the skin. The doctor will then prepare a treatment plan for you. A dermatological consult can be for cosmetic reasons or management of pathological skin conditions.
This is a non-surgical cosmetic medical procedure.it involves the multiple injections of homeopathic and pharmaceutical drugs , vitamins , plant extracts and various other ingredients into the skin subcutaneous fat layer. The procedure helps remove excess fat, tighten the skin thus rejuvenating it.
Mole and Skin Lesion Evaluation
This is like dermatological consult aimed at examining moles (benign pigmented lesion o the skin with histologic and clinical picture of malignant melanoma) and other lesion in the skin. This evaluation is important in that potential skin malignancies like malignant melanomas will be captured early and treated.
Excessive Sweating Treatment
Excessive Sweating is also referred to hyperhidrosis. It is more common in those with obesity. It can be a symptom of infections, diabetics, thyroid problem, and side effect of drugs, heart failure, blood cancer, stroke, pregnancy, menopause, alcoholism, rheumatoid arthritis or Parkinsonism. It can be managed by lifestyle changes, use of antiperspirants or iontophoresis or botulinum toxin and surgery.
Hair Restoration 2 procedures
This this is a surgical technique that involves moving hair follicles from one area of the body (donor area) to a balding or bald part of the body (recipient area). Commonly used to treat male baldness.
Eyebrow Hair Transplant
This is a procedure that involves moving hair from another part of one’s body and transplanting to the eyebrow area. Hair follicles that are healthy are harvested from the donor site and transferred to create the client’s desired eyebrow
Laboratory Medicine 4 procedures
Blood Test Package
This is a collection of the basic blood tests that are done to provide the physician with information about the overall wellness of a patient. It includes a complete blood count, hemoglobin, hormonal assays, a comprehensive metabolic panel etc.
These Are tests done on blood samples, i.e., blood work or panel. The blood is usually extracted from a vein in the upper limb using a figure prick or hypodermic needle. It tests for specific components of bold such as cholesterol, glucose tests
This is a medical test done to identify changes in proteins, genes or chromosomes. The test result helps to rule out or confirm genetic conditions or determine one's predisposition or chance of propagating the disorder. Genetic Testing is also useful is transplant procedure, proving parenthood of a child or forensic analysis.
Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Testing
STI treatment require that a proper history of signs and symptoms taken, physical examination done and relevant investigations ordered. A proper treatment plan is then prepared depending on the findings.
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 13 procedures
It is a medical therapy where low temperatures are used generally or locally. It is used to treat a variety of lesions (malignant or benign). Cold substances like liquid nitrogen are used to freeze then remove the lesions.
This is a treatment that is used to relieve pain that is caused by compression of nerve tissue in various parts of the body. It can be surgical or non-surgical. Notable examples include spinal decompression surgery where components of the spine realigned to release pressure ion pinched nerves.
This is the use of electrical energy in medical treatment. The therapy varies in waveforms, effect, and frequencies. Commonly used forms of electrotherapy included deep brain simulators and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.
It is also known as a spinal adjustment. It is a term used by chiropractors to delineate the approaches to manipulating the spine. The chiropractor applies manipulation to the vertebrae, to reduce that subluxation and provided an effective lower back pain relief. All these manipulations should be done by a trained health professional in a hospital.
Chiropractic is a medical profession that is committed to the management of musculoskeletal and nervous system disorders via non-surgical methods. Chiropractors have a special focus on spinal manipulation a treatment of surrounding structures. It is commonly used in the management of lower back pains (acute and chronic). Chiropractic techniques included Garston, Activator, Extremity manipulation, Trigenics, Gonstead, Thompson, Distraction, Korn specifoica, Atlas orthogonal, and diversified techniques.
This is a physical treatment that is primarily used by occupational therapists, massage therapists, physical therapists, athletic trainers, osteopathic physicians, osteopaths, and physiotherapist to manage musculoskeletal disability and pain. It incorporates joint mobilization, muscles manipulation, kneading and joint manipulation. There are many styles of manual therapy. This included myotherapy, osteopathy, Rolfing, sotai, shiatsu, massage therapy, bone sitting, anma, acupuncture, bodyworks, etc.
This is physiotherapy. It makes use of mechanical movements and force, manual therapy, electrotherapy and exercise therapy. It helps improve the patient’s quality of life via diagnosis, examination, prognosis and physical interventions.
Bone and Joint Screening
These are tests done to detect bone and joint diseases like cancers earlier. The test is commonly done when a patient present with bone and joint complains like pain. A bone screening test is widely used to diagnose osteoporosis. This is done by carrion out a bone mineral test.
Lymphatic Drainage Massage
This is a technique used to help increase the flow of lymph. The increased flow helps improve the immune function and remove harmful substances from tissues which are then neutralized in the lymph nodes. Apart from this, the procedure helps improve healing after surgery, improves breastfeeding, and relax a patient. Manual lymph drainage is the commonly used technique.
An Orthopedic Rehabilitation program has many components, including occupational and physical therapy, sports injury rehabilitation, specialized pediatric services and minimally invasive procedures. The therapy aims to treat several conditions that affect the musculoskeletal system. The program restores the strength, motion, and activity after injury.
This is a medical devices that is fitted into the knee joint to give it support, especially when the person has pain that is emanating from the knee. They are used to provide support to the knee ligaments and the patella while one recovers from injury, to prevent injury, play sports, or to relieve pain in the knee. There are four categories of knee braces available i.e. functional, unloader, prophylactic and rehabilitative braces.
Bioptron Lamp Irradiation Treatment
Bioptron lamb is an optical device that emits light with wavelengths similar to the section of the electromagnetic spectrum that is naturally emitted by the sun, but it lacks UV light. The therapy acts naturally to support the body’s balancing and regenerative properties thereby helping the body to bring out its innate healing potential. The light produces bio-stimulation, i.e., stimulate the body’s biological processes positively hence strengthening the body’s functionality. It has no side effects and works naturally. Treatment is individualized and depends on one’s problem and the state of the area under treatment. It is used in dermatology, rheumatology, stomatology, cosmetology, cardiology, sports medicine, etc.
Bobath Concept Therapy
It is used by physiotherapists in the rehabilitation of patients with neurological disorders to promote the motor and sensory pathways and facilitate motor control and normal movement. It aims to improve mobility and movement in patients with damage to the CNS. The concept is based on the brain's ability to reorganize, recover and adapt to changes after neurological damage.
Infectious Diseases 2 procedures
This is a visit to a hospital for physician clinical review after exposure to a patient with hepatitis or a previous diagnosis of hepatitis. The visit is meant to monitor treatment and if a first visit is assessed and investigated for your treatment plan to be made. The consultation can also be for purposes of vaccination or medical education.
Hepatitis C Treatment
Hepatitis c is a deadly medical condition. If not managed, managed early, it leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The treatment can be purely medical or involve surgery. Medical, we use antiviral agents and interferon to manage the condition. The only surgical treatment is a liver transplant. This is performed when one develops and end-stage liver disease. Hematologists are specialists in liver diseases.
Allergology 1 procedures
This is a test that involves having blood tests or skin tests to establish if an allergen or a subsistence can trigger an allergic reaction in the patient.
Anesthetics 1 procedures
This is a medical procedure where patients are induced into a temporary state of loss of awareness or sensation.it may include amnesia, paralysis, unconsciousness or analgesia. It can be local or general. It is normally given before surgical procedures or in the ICU.
Dentistry Packages 1 procedures
This is a collection of dental procedure or treatment that can be done on a patient all at an affordable, inclusive cost. The entire package can be done by a single dentist or a group of dentists.
Rheumatology 5 procedures
Rheumatoid Arthritis Consultation
This is a visit to a consultant physician rheumatologist. The doctor will assess the patient condition and formulate an appropriate treatment plan the book them for follow up.
Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment
Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic inflammatory rheumatologic condition that affects many joints including those of the feet and hand. If not properly managed, it results in gross deformities in one's limbs and severely reduce the quality of one’s life. The condition is diagnosed medically though imaging and lab tests are often needed. Though it has no cure, the condition can be slowed through medical and physiotherapy interventions. The most common drugs used in its management include, corticosteroids, NSAID, immunosuppressive drugs and DMARDs.
Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by widespread muscle pain and tenderness accompanied by sleep, mood, fatigue and memory issues. There is no cure, but proper medications and regular physical activity can help patient condition to improve. The condition is managed by a combination of exercise, education, psychotherapy and relaxation techniques. The pain medications and antidepressants help to control the fatigue, anxiety, depression, and pain.
Lupus Erythematosus Treatment
Lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune condition where the body’s immune system confuses body tissues as foreign and attacks them. Its management will depend on its manifestations and severity. The treatment may include antimalarial drugs, corticosteroids, steroid creams for rashes, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, immunosuppressants like cyclophosphamide and anti-inflammatory medication like NSAIDs.
This is a review of a patient suspected or diagnosed with Rheumatologic disorders such as Rheumatoid arthritis. The patient will undergo a clinical examination and relevant investigations ordered so as to check the patient’s general medical condition. The patient’s medications will also be reviewed and if failing, they will be changed. The consult is done by a consultant Rheumatologist.
Vascular Medicine 5 procedures
This is a medical imaging modality that is used to view the lumen or inside of organs and vessels in the body with a special interest in veins, arteries, and chambers of the heart. It helps reveal areas of blockage or areas with pathology. They include arteriogram, venograms, CT angiography, MR angiography. Examples microangiography, coronary angiography, etc.
This is a surgical procedure that is used to reduce one's risk of developing stroke by correcting present in the internal carotid artery or the common carotid artery. The procedure helps get rid of an atherosclerotic plug that usually develops in some patients arteries.
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair
An Aneurysm is a dilated section of an artery. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm occurs when the Abdominal Aorta enlarges and balloons outward at this point. The repair of AAA is achieved in two ways, i.e., endovascular Aneurysm repair (EVAR) and open repair.
Sometimes referred to as percutaneous transluminal Angioplasty or balloon Angioplasty.it is a minimally y invasive procedure that is done to widen obstructed or narrowed veins and arteries typically to manage atherosclerosis. A balloon catheter is passed over a guided wire to the narrowed vessel which is then inflated. A stent is sometimes inserted during the ballooning phase to ensure that the vessel will remain open after the balloon is deflated and removed. It has several used, i.e., Coronary Angioplasty, carotid Angioplasty and Peripheral Angioplasty.
Aortic Arch Surgery
It a complex cardiothoracic operation done to manage aortic arch aneurysms. The procedure is often needed once the aneurism enlarges to a certain size, or when there is aortic dissection or when it ruptures. During the surgery, concomitant repair of other defects in the heart can be performed e.g. coronary artery blockage.
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine 6 procedures
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Treatment
COPD is a lung disease that encompasses chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The condition is incurable, but treatment can help. It is thus a lifelong disease. Treatment starts with smoking cessation. Drugs such as bronchodilators, steroids, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, theophylline, and antibiotics are used. Lung therapies include oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation. Surgical solutions available included lung transplant, bullectomy, and lung volume reduction surgeries.
Cystic Fibrosis Treatment
Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary condition that causes damage to the digestive system, lungs and other parts of the human body. It commonly affects the cell that produces sweat, digestive juices, and mucus. Though currently, it has no cure, the conditions can be controlled to prevent complication and improved the patient quality of life. Specialists in cystic fibrosis will prepare a comprehensive treatment plan for the patient. Medications commonly used include antibiotics, the medications that make mucus thinner, ivacaftor, bronchodilators, and steroids. The patient is also taught maneuvers on how to deal with the condition.
This is an interventional procedure that is done to diagnose pathologies of the lungs by obtaining samples that are then examined in histology or cytology under a microscope.
This is an endoscopic procedure done to visualize the inside of the airways for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. The endoscopic instrument is inserted into the airways via either the nose or mouth and sometimes via a tracheostomy.
Tuberculosis (TB) Treatment
TB can either be pulmonary or exra-pulmonary. Treatment of TB is done in two phases it the intensive phase and the continuation phase. The intensive phase is usually a two months period of treatment with rifampicin, ethambutol, isoniazid and pyrazinamide. The continuation phase is usually a seven to eighteen months of treatment with rifampicin and isoniazid. The duration of the continuation phases is dependent of result of sensitivity tests and immune status of patient including comorbidities.
This is a surgical operation to remove a lung. It is commonly used in the management of lung cancers. Two types of the procedure are available i.e. extra-pleural Pneumonectomy and simple Pneumonectomy.
Endocrinology 3 procedures
This is the review of a newly diagnosed or known diabetic patient by a diabetic care team. The doctors will take the patient history of the condition, carry out physical examinations to detect any diabetic complication, proper carryout investigations like RBS and educated the patient about his condition an, the impotence of drug compliance and possible lifestyle changes that patient will have to implement. The consult may decide to change the patient drugs.
This is a review of a patient suspected or diagnosed with endocrinological disorders such as hyperthyroidism. The patient will undergo a clinical examination and relevant investigations ordered to check the patient’s general medical condition. The patient’s medications will also be reviewed, and if failing, they will be changed. The consult can be done to a gynecologic, obstetric, medical, surgical, pediatric or even a psychiatric patient.
These are tests done to diagnose or rule our Endocrinological disorders. The test measures the level of a certain hormone in the blood, e.g., estrogen, thyroid function test, growth hormone, stimulating follicle hormone, etc.
Immunology 1 procedures
This is a patient review by a qualified immunologist. It includes tests done to diagnose or rule out a suspected immunological diseases. If present, a proper treatment plan including follow-up will be discussed with the patient.
Tropical medicine 1 procedures
Malarial is the leading killer in many part of Asia and Africa. A patient can present with specific or non-specific symptoms. History of residency or travel to malarial infected regions is important. The management offered will depend on whether it is complicated or uncomplicated. The type of drug used will also be influenced by pregnancy and allergy to some antimalarial.
Neonatology 2 procedures
A neonatologist is a pediatric subspecialist in the medical care of newer bone infants particularly the premature and ill new bones. The do most of their work in neonatal ICU. The consolation will enable the specialist to review the infant and prepare and appropriate treatment plan to ensure the baby turns out healthy.
This is a surgical procedure that is done to make the airway larger. It is commonly done to improve air flow in children with obstructed airways. There are various surgical options available such as slide tracheoplasty and allograft Tracheoplasty.
Specialists working with Max Super Specialty Hospital Shalimar Bagh, Delhi
Dr. Arvind Gupta Nephrology
- Clinical Nephrology
- Kidney Transplant
- Indian Society of Nephrology (ISN)
- European Dialysis & Transplant Association
Dr. Rakesh Chandra Arya Orthopedics
- Performed more than 3000 Arthroscopic procedures of Knee & Shoulder Joint
- Independently doing Arthroscoopy & knee surgery clinic
- Member, International Arthroscopy Society (ISAKOS)
Dr. Naresh Kumar Goyal Cardiology
- Advance Fellowship in Complex. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention at University of Torino, Torino, Italy
- Best case Presentation award in IIIrd Indo- European Caurse on Revascularisation (2009)
- President Scout award
- Trans Radial Intervention
Dr. Naveen Bhamri Cardiology
- D.M. cardiology (G B Pant Hospital, Delhi) FSCAI (USA) 2012
- Best Case presentation in Paris for Coronary Total Occlusion Conference
- Coronary & Peripheral Interventions
- Congestive heart failure management (Medical + Interventional)
Dr. Sanjeev Sood Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT)
- President of Indian Medical Association, Outer West Branch
- MS (ENT) from Delhi University in 1987
- 18 years of Clinical Practice at MAMC
Dr. Rajesh Upadhyay Gastroenterology
- Consultant Gastroenterologist in India since 1991
- IMA National Award – ‘Distinguished Medical Men for their contribution of highest order in the field of Medicine’ in 2014
- Indian Medical Association (IMA)
- Gastroenterology & Endoscopy
Dr. Amitaabh Varma Neurology
- D.M. - Neurology (AIIMS), 1979
- Former Hony. Physician to President Of India 1988
- Life member, Neurological Society of India
- Was in Editorial Board of Journal Of American Medical Association (JAMA - India)
Dr. Rakesh Kumar Dua Neurosurgery
- Fellowship in Micro Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
- Minimally invasive Micro Neuro-Spinal surgery including tumors, vascular, congenital disease, spinal degenerative disease and spinal fixation
- Faculty of National Board of Examinations
- Life Member-Neurological Society of India
Dr. Amrinder Kaur Bajaj Gynecology
- Over 40 years of experience in active clinical practice.
- Certificate of appreciation by IMA for professional excellence
- Minimal invasive surgery
- High risk pregnancy
Dr. Sanjeev Taneja Ophthalmology
- MS (Master of Surgery in Opthalmology (1991-1994)
- Oculoplasty & Squint, Phacoemulsification, Glaucoma
- Medical retina Including Lasers
Dr. A.J. Chitkara Paediatrics
- International Fellow, American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2004
- Founder member, Influenza Foundation of India (IFI), to spread awareness about influenza disease & its prevention
- Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of histiocytosis. Midbrain Tuberculoma
- cerebellar syndrome in malaria
- Pediatric infectious diseases
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