Medipol University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey

for Cardiac Assessment

Cardiac Assessment

This is the systematic examination of a patient’s cardiovascular system with the aim of diagnosing cardiovascular problems. The assessment encompasses taking a comprehensive history of a patient, carrying out a thorough physical examination of a patient and finally doing investigations such as electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, central venous pressure, etc.

Overview

Medipol University Hospital is the Turkey's largest private health investment as a university hospital incorporating General, Cardiovascular Surgery, Oncology and Dental hospitals, Medipol University Hospital attracts attention with its modern architecture intelligent building technology and advanced medical equipment and bears the distinction of being one of Turkey's best hospitals with a new generation of technology. Medipol University Hospital, is a new reference center in the health sector in both national and international arenas. Medipol University Hospital, being the justifiably proud of Medipol Education and Health Group in Turkey and in the world, resulting in this spirit, is a health complex having JCI standards accepting patients from all over the world. Medipol University Hospital takes firm steps forward with the big investments and advances in preventive / curative health services to improve the community's quality of life. Medipol University Hospital has capacity of 470 beds 133-bed Intensive Care Units (General, Coronary, CVC, Neonatal Intensive Care) all serving with an infrastructure equipped with intelligent systems and technology. Medipol University Hospital , having the highest number of departments within the hospitals in Turkey, presents patient-centered superior service approach. The hospital is also is configured with a new generation of technology being capable of performing simultaneous operations in 25 operating rooms. Away from the usual hospita architecture, Medipol University Hospital is a complex which may become an example in the world with its "Healing Hospital Architecture" and original scape in order to make patients and their relatives feel better. Medipol University Hospital has 15 acres of gardens, 26 thousand square meters of 5 storey under ground car park, 100 thousand square meters of indoor area and 1,500 people of employment capacity. Holding the comfort and convenience of the patients at the forefront, Medipol University Hospital host patients and their relatives in the comfort of home environment. There are totally 470 beds involving spacious and modern physical areas, terrace garden suites, suites and normal rooms. Patients can benefit from multimedia services (TV, DVD, internet) in rooms equipped with LCD screen . In addition to the any kind of comfort of modern life that the patient and their relatives may need, a high - quality meal service is also supplied. While designing the spacious prayer room of 600-people capacity, the method of "Turkish triangle" which means covering a square-based environment with a dome, was used with a special architectural approach. Patients and their relatives can fulfill their religion in peace within this custom-designed, spacious prayer room. In Medipol University Hospital, Pyxis Medication Management System being the first and largest "Drug Management System" of the market in the world is used. From 2004 until today, very few hospitals in Turkey have been established Pyxis System, one of them is also Medipol University Hospital. "Pyxis Medication Management System" offers a complete automation and security by working integratelywith "Hospital Information Management System" from pharmacy to the moment of drug delivery to the patient. 5 basic principles of international patient safety are provided automatically with the system by administering the right medication to the right patient at the right dose by the right way at the right time. At the same time, approximately 50% part of the most recent "Service Quality Standards" , especially "Pharmacy Management" and "Inventory Management" criteria published by the Ministry of Health are provided automatically and contributes to hospital's "Service Quality Factor" .

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English, Turkish, Spanish, Arabic, German, French, Translators can be arranged for other Languages

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Pharmacy

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Procedures

Ophthalmology 14 procedures

Cataract Surgery

This is a procedure where the lens in one’s eye that has become cloudy (cataract) is removed and replaced with an artificial Len (called IOL or intraocular Len). Cataract is a condition that leads to loss of vision by clouding of one’s natural eye Len that lies behind the pupil and iris. It is performed by an ophthalmologist.

Detached Retina Treatment

The retinal detachment is an emergency condition where the pulls from the bold vessel that supply it with nutrients and oxygen. It’s accompanied by floaters (cobwebs or specks) and flashes in one's vision. If not fixed leads to blindness. The condition can be managed via various treatment modalities by an ophthalmologist. The notable procedures include vitrectomy, pneumatic retinopexy and scleral buckle procedure.

Eyelid Surgery

It is also known as blepharoplasty. It’s a surgical procedure meant to improve the appearance of one's eyelids. It can be performed on the lower lid, upper lids or both. It’s performed by plastic surgeons and helps correct deformities, disfigurations, and defects of the eyelids. It’s used to treat sagging or loose skin that creates a fold and disturb natural contour of the eye, remove fatty deposits that make ones eye puffy, remove bags below the eye, correct drooping lower lid and remove fine wrinkles and excess skins in lower lids.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Treatment

Currently, there is no specific treatment for dry AMD, but the patient can slow their condition by taking minerals and vitamins daily. There are however the wet AMD can be managed with Anti-VEGF drugs which helps decrease the number of abnormal vessels in one’s eye. Laser surgery can also be used to manage it.

Cornea Transplant

This is corneal grafting. It is a surgical procedure where a person’s diseased or damaged cornea is replaced by a corneal tissue that is donated.

Artificial Iris Implantation

During this procedure, an artificial iris made from silicon is folded then inserted into an incision that has been made in the cornea. It is a cosmetic procedure. In it, the iris is adjusted and unfolded to cove one's natural iris. This implant is used to change the color of one’s eyes. It is also sued to treat coloboma or people whose iris have been damaged by traumatic injuries.

Amniotic Membrane Transplant

Amniotic Membrane can function as a temporary graft or a basement membrane substitute in the eye. The membrane has growth factors that promote wound healing. Also, it has anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring effects. AM has two functions, i.e., as a surgical graft and as a biological bandage. AMT is used in ophthalmology to reconstruct the conjunctiva and the cornea after scaring due to disease, acute burns, and corneal persistent epithelial defects.

Chalazion Treatment

A Chalazion is a painless benign nodule or bulge in the lower or upper eyelids. Conservatively, it is managed by lid hygiene and warm compress. Medically, topical or intralesional steroids can be used to minimize inflammation. This can cause regression of the lesion in few weeks. An ophthalmologist best performs surgery to remove the lesion.

Astigmatism Correction

This is type of refractive error in which the eyes don’t focus light evenly on the retina resulting in blurring of vision. It can also lead to night blindness, headaches and eyestrains. The condition is corrected with contact lenses, refractive surgery and eyeglasses.

Vitrectomy (Retinal Detachment Repair)

Retinal detachment repair is eye surgery to place a retina back into its normal position. The retina is the light-sensitive tissue in the back of the eye. Detachment means that it has pulled away from the layers of tissue around it. Most retinal detachment repair operations are urgent. A detached retina does not get a supply of oxygen. This causes the cells in the area to die, which can lead to blindness. If holes or tears in the retina are found before the retina detaches, the eye doctor can close the holes using a laser.

Ptosis (lazy eye)

Ptosis is a drooping or falling of the upper eyelid. The drooping may be worse after being awake longer when the individual's muscles are tired. This condition is sometimes called "lazy eye", but that term normally refers to the condition amblyopia.

Retinoblastoma

An eye cancer that begins in the back of the eye (retina), most commonly in children. Retinoblastoma may occur in one or both eyes. Retinoblastoma has few, if any, symptoms at first. It may be noticed if a pupil appears white when light is shone into the eye, sometimes with flash photography. Eyes may appear to be looking in different directions. Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation and laser therapy.

Strabismus (ocular misalignment)

Disorder in which the eyes don't look in exactly the same direction at the same time. Causes of strabismus can include nerve injury or dysfunction of the muscles controlling the eye. The main symptom is eyes that don't look in exactly the same direction at the same time. Crossed eyes can usually be corrected with early treatment. Several treatment options exist to align the eyes. They include special eye wear, use of an eye patch and rarely surgery.

Glaucoma

A group of eye conditions that can cause blindness. With all types of glaucoma, the nerve connecting the eye to the brain is damaged, usually due to high eye pressure. The most common type of glaucoma (open-angle glaucoma) often has no symptoms other than slow vision loss. Angle-closure glaucoma, although rare, is a medical emergency and its symptoms include eye pain with nausea and sudden visual disturbance. Treatment includes eye drops, medication and surgery.

General Surgery 18 procedures

Bone Marrow Transplant (Autologous)

This is a surgical procedure which involves a process where unhealthy bone marrow tissue is replaced with a healthy one. In an autologous transplant, your own blood-forming stem cells are collected. You are then treated with high doses of chemotherapy. The high-dose treatment kills the cancer cells, but it also gets rid of the blood-producing cells that are left in your bone marrow.

Hernia Repair

A hernia is an abnormal protrusion in whole or part, through an OPENING, pathological or anatomically in the walls of its containing cavity, e.g., the abdominal cavity. Hernia Repair procedures involve returning this displaced tissue to their proper place. There are different types of Hernia Repair surgeries, i.e., Herniorrhaphy (tissue repair) and hernioplasty (mesh repair) where a mesh is usually sewn over weakened areas.

Mastectomy

This is the surgical removal either wholly or partially one or both breasts. It is carried out to treat breast cancer. It can be carried out prophylactically in case a patient has a high risk of breast malignancy. There are five types of mastectomies being practiced today, i.e., radical mastectomy, subcutaneous (nipple- sparing) mastectomy, partial mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy and “total” or “simple” mastectomy.

Adrenalectomy

This is the surgical excision of one or both the suprarenal glands. It can be performed as laparoscopic or as an open procedure. It is commonly performed on patients with adrenal cancers.

Appendectomy

This is the surgical removal of the appendix. It is performed after a patient suffering from acute appendicitis. It can be performed as laparoscopic or as an open procedure.

Hiatal Hernia Surgery

This is a surgery done to correct a hiatal hernia. Hiatal Hernia is the abnormal protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm.

Diagnostic Laparoscopy

This is a procedure done by a gynecologist to view a woman’s reproductive organs using a laparoscope. A laparoscope is a thin tube that is normally passed through a small cut in the abdomen. It helps the doctor to directly see the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus and nearby organs. It can be issued to localize the source of pain, examine body tissues, confirm PID or endometriosis and look for fallopian tube blockage.

Breast Abscess Drainage

This is a minor surgical procedure done to remove pus from female breast abscesses. An incision is made to create an opening through which the abscess is drained. After this, the area left is packed with iodine-soaked gauze, and the patient is given drugs to take and given an appointment to return for a checkup. A recent advance in the procedure is the introduction of percutaneous aspiration under ultrasound guidance.

Breast Lumpectomy

This is a procedure done to remove a breast tumor. The tumor and a portion of its surrounding (usually a margin of about 2 cm). It is a form of breast-conserving surgery or breast preservation procedure. It is technically a partial mastectomy procedure.

Liver Resection

This is the surgical removal of a part of the liver. It is a procedure done to manage some types of liver malignancies and metastatic colorectal cancer. The liver tumor must be located in the area under resection.

Umbilical Hernia Repair

An umbilical hernia is a pouch or bulge the forma in the anterior abdominal wall. It arises when part of the intestine push through a weak area in the anterior wall near the umbilicus. The operation aims to fix the hernia. It is done when the hernia gets largest than one inch or is causing a disfigurement or is accompanied by pain.

Nephrectomy (removal of kidney)

This is the surgical removal of a kidney. It is done to manage kidney malignancies as well as other kidney injuries and diseases. It can also be done to remove a healthy kidney for purposes of transplantation from donor.

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

In a sleeve gastrectomy, also known as a vertical sleeve gastrectomy or gastric sleeve procedure, the outer margin of the stomach is removed to restrict food intake, leaving a sleeve of stomach, roughly the size and shape of a banana, and the pylorus, the muscle that controls emptying of food from the stomach into the intestine. A sleeve gastrectomy is a purely restrictive procedure. Sleeve gastrectomy - posselt slides. The sleeve gastrectomy, by reducing the size of the stomach, allows the patient to feel full after eating less and taking in fewer calories. The surgery removes that portion of the stomach that produces a hormone that can makes a patient feel hungry. Sleeve gastrectomy is a simpler operation than the gastric bypass procedure because it does not involve rerouting of or re-connection of the intestines. The sleeve gastrectomy, unlike the Lap-band, does not require the use of a banding device to be implanted around a portion of the stomach.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Lap Chole)

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a procedure in which the gallbladder is removed by laparoscopic techniques. Laparoscopic surgery also referred to as minimally invasive surgery describes the performance of surgical procedures with the assistance of a video camera and several thin instruments.

Anal Fistula

An anal fistula is an abnormal connection between the lining on the inside of your anal canal (back passage) and the skin near your anus. Surgery for anal fistula is usually performed under a general anesthesia. The surgery usually takes between a quarter of an hour and half an hour.

Bone Marrow Transplant (Allogeneic)

This is a surgical procedure which involves a process where unhealthy bone marrow tissue is replaced with a healthy one. An allogeneic transplant uses stem cells from a donor whose human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are acceptable matches to the patient's.

Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

A laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a surgery during which the doctor removes your gallbladder. This procedure uses several small cuts instead of one large one. A laparoscope, a narrow tube with a camera, is inserted through one incision. This allows your doctor to see your gallbladder on a screen.

Inguinal Hernioplasty (Hernia Surgery)

Inguinal hernia surgery is an operation to repair a weakness in the abdominal wall that abnormally allows abdominal contents to slip into a narrow tube called the inguinal canal in the groin region.

Dentistry 9 procedures

Apicoectomy

This is an endodontic procedure that is done using a microscope hence also referred to as endodontic microsurgery. It is commonly done after a previous root canal procedure which has become infected and the second root retreatment unsuccessful or impossible. In an apicoectomy, the teeth root tip is removed, and then a root end cavity is prepared before being filled with a material that is biocompatible.

Bone Graft

It is also known as bone transplanting. This is a surgical procedure used to replace a missing bone to repair bone fractures that are complex, fail to heal in right way or pose a substantial health risk to the patient. It is that is used to repair problems with joints or bone, especially from trauma. It is also useful in ensuring that bone grows around an implanted device properly.

Dental Crown

Is a procedure used to install a dental crown after damage. Normally, it requires at least two visits to a dentist. In the first visit, dentist examines the teeth to ensure it can support the crown then starts filling the crown to ensure it can support the crown. The dentist then takes an impression of the teeth and send to the dental lab so that permanent crown is made. In the second visit, the permanent crown is installed. Several types of crowns are available, i.e., porcelain, ceramic, stainless steel, resin, and gold. The procedure can be undertaken for cosmetic reasons or repair damaged the tooth.

Dental Bridge

It is a procedure done by a dentist. A bridge is a fixed dental prosthesis used to replace a missing tooth by permanently joining an artificial tooth with an adjacent dental implant or teeth. There are four type of dental bridges, i.e., cantilever bridge, Maryland Bridge, traditional bridge and implant supported bridges.

Dental Checkup

This is a visit to a dentist. The dentist will carry out an inspection of the teeth and surrounding soft tissue to identify problems one may not be feeling or seeing. People with low risk for dental diseases need to visit a dentist at least once a year while high-risk individuals need 3 to 4 visits a year.

Braces

These are orthodontic devices used to straighten and align teeth and possibly position them with regards to a person’s natural bite. It helps improve a person’s cosmetic appearance and general health.

Dental Implant

These are surgical components that are used in dental procedures to create an interface between the jawbone or the skull to support dental prostheses like bridges, facial prostheses, denture, crown or to act just as an orthodontic anchor.

All-on-4

This is a technique that is used to rehabilitate an edentulous patient or a patient whose teeth are badly broken down, decayed or compromised due to gum disease. It is a prosthodontics surgical technique in which all the teeth will get supported on four dental implants. The four implant support a prosthesis with fixed 10-14 teeth that place immediately after surgery. All-on-four implant has the following benefits, i.e., shorter installation time, prevent future bone loss, and ensure the arch is restored fully.

Cosmetic Dentistry Consultation

A cosmetic dentist is a dental practitioner that will help you change your appearance by changing your smile, gum, bite, and teeth. The consultation focuses on improving one's appearance regarding position, size, color, shape, and smile. The consultation helps you get a professional opinion before you make any final decisions.

Cardiology 22 procedures

Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Closure

An ASD is a congenital heart defect in the atrial septum that results in leakage oxygen-rich blood from left atrium to the right atrium. This increases the work of workload of the right side of the heart and if not corrected early can lead to heart failure. The defect if small can be corrected by cardiac catheterization usually by a pediatric cardiologist. A large defect often needs open heart procedures.

Cardiac Assessment

This is the systematic examination of a patient’s cardiovascular system with the aim of diagnosing cardiovascular problems. The assessment encompasses taking a comprehensive history of a patient, carrying out a thorough physical examination of a patient and finally doing investigations such as electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, central venous pressure, etc.

Coronary Angiogram

It is a type of cardiac catheterization procedure. It is performed for both interventional and diagnostic purposes. In this procedure, a dye that is radiopaque is injected into the blood vessels of one’s heart. An X-ray machine is then used to take serial images (angiograms) that give a picture of how the blood vessels are. Based on the finding, an interventional cardiologist will open the clogged vessels (angioplasty).

Coronary Angioplasty

Also known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) Thais is a procedure that is used to widen narrowed or blocked coronary arteries. The procedure is carried out by an interventional cardiologist. When combined with stenting, it is referred to as percutaneous coronary intervention. Is should be done within thirty minutes to 2 hours after a having a cardiac event.

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery

Also referred to as colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery or coronary artery bypass surgery. It is an operation done restore normal blood flow to obstructed coronary vessels hence used to manage coronary heart disease. The surgery has two main approaches, i.e., diversion of the internal thoracic artery to the left anterior descending artery in the left coronary vessel and using the great saphenous vein to create a connection between the aorta or its branch to the obstructed artery distance to the obstruction.

Cardiology Consultation

This is a hospital checkup and review by a qualified cardiologist. It involves patient assessment, treatment planning, diagnosis and cardiac interventions.

Bentall Procedure

This is a cardiothoracic operation that involves the replacement of a composite graft of the aortic root, ascending aorta and the aortic valve with implantation of coronary arteries into the graft.

Cardiac CT

This is a painless imaging modality that uses x-rays to take detailed images of one’s heart and its blood vessels. It may or may not be done with intravenous contrast agents. The modern multidetector CT (MDCT) is highly sensitive.

Atrioventricular Fistula Treatment

This is a procedure used to correct abnormal connections between the atria and ventricles of one's heart. The surgery requires the deformity be repaired to ensure that the correct flow of blood in one’s heart is achieved.

Aortic Valve Repair

This is a procedure done to repair or replace aortic valves damaged by disease. Aortic valves are one of the four heart valves that help regulate the flow of blood in the heart. The surgeon will remove the damaged valves and replace them with a prosthetic one which is then screwed into place. The valves can be mechanical (made of artificial materials like carbon) or biological, i.e., from animal or human tissue.

Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD) Treatment

Atrioventricular Septal Defect is a congenital malformation of the heart that allows the mixing of blood from the right and left sides of the heart. It can be due to the absence of the persistence of fetal interatrial foramen or the complete absence of part or whole of the septum. The management of the condition is surgical.

Aortopulmonary Window Repair

Aortopulmonary Window is a rare defect of the heart in which there is a hole connecting the aorta and the pulmonary artery abs a result failure of the conotructal ridges to fuse. As spontaneous closure does not occur, once a diagnosis is made, Aortopulmonary Window Repair surgery is the only solution.

24 Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring

This allows a patient’s blood pressure to be measured at regular intervals (20-30 minutes) over a 24 hour period, whether the patient is asleep or awake. The BP will be measure as one goes about the activities of his daily life. It helps to detect masked hypertension, sustained hypertension and white coat hypertensions. It is also good in situations like BP change due to medication, pregnancy related hypertension, borderline hypertension, fainting episodes and when it is difficult to control BP with drugs.

Heart Transplant

Heart Transplant surgery is done to replace a damaged heart with a healthy, working heart that is taken from an ‘organ donor’ who has recently died. However, in very rare cases, the diseased heart is kept in its place to support the donated heart, instead of being removed. Heart transplant is used as a last resort when all the other cardiac treatments fail to improve the health of the patient.

Minimally Invasive (Key hole) Bypass Surgery

Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass is a surgical treatment for coronary heart disease that is a less invasive method of coronary artery bypass surgery, without the need to opening chest.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)

An enlargement of the aorta, the main blood vessel that delivers blood to the body, at the level of the abdomen. An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) can be life-threatening if it bursts. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are most common in older men and smokers.

Radio frequency (RF) Ablation heart rhythm correction

Catheter ablation is a procedure that uses radiofrequency energy (similar to microwave heat) to destroy a small area of heart tissue that is causing rapid and irregular heartbeats. Destroying this tissue helps restore your heart's regular rhythm.

Permanent Pacemaker Implant (Double Chamber)

A pacemaker is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart. A pacemaker consists of a small, battery-powered generator and one or more leads. In a single-chamber system, one lead is used, most commonly pacing the right ventricle. Dual-chamber pacemakers have two leads, placed in the right atrium and right ventricle.

Permanent Pacemaker Implant (Single Chamber)

A pacemaker is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart. Single-chamber pacemaker - With this device, 1 pacing lead is implanted in the right atrium or ventricle.

Mitral & Aortic Valve Replacement (AVR MVR)

Valve replacement surgery is the replacement of one or more of the heart valves with either an artificial heart valve or a bioprosthesis. It is an alternative to valve repair.

Minimally Invasive Valve Replacement (AVR MVR)

Valve replacement surgery is the replacement of one or more of the heart valves with either an artificial heart valve or a bioprosthesis. It is an alternative to valve repair. Benefits of minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) have been well recognized when compared with a standard median sternotomy, in terms of blood loss reduction, lower morbidity, shorter intensive care unit and in-hospital stay.

Double valve replacement (DVR including two valves)

A double valve replacement is a replacement of both the mitral and the aortic valve, or the entire left side of the heart. This type of surgery is not as common as the others and the mortality rate is slightly higher.

Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) 18 procedures

Adenoidectomy

This is a surgical procedure used to remove the adenoids (lymphoid tissue in the nasopharynx) when they are enlarged hence causing recurrent earache, chronic infections or impaired breathing via the nose. It is performed by an otolaryngologist.

Cochlear Implant

This is an electronic gadget (device) used to replace the functions of the inner ear when it is damaged. The implant does the work of the Cochlear by generating sound signals for the brain. It is thus useful in persons with profound or moderate hearing loss bilaterally. The device helps one to her better. Cochlear implant surgery is done by ENT Surgeon.

Laryngeal Surgery

These are surgeries done on the larynx to remove various pathologies such as laryngeal cancer, laryngeal papilloma, laryngeal granulomas, etc. Total laryngectomy (open) is the complete removal of the larynx while partial is incomplete removal. This normally depends on the location and stage of cancer. Endoscopic laryngeal surgeries are getting common. Microlaryngeal surgeries are used to operate on one's vocal cord. Laser surgery is a recent addition.

Audiometry

It is a test done to test one’s ability to perceive sound. The machine used to do the test is called an audiometer. It measures ones hearing acuity based on variations in sound tone, pitch, and intensity. It helps grade conduction deafness and rules out sensorineural hearing loss.

Laryngectomy

This is the surgical removal of the larynx and then separating it from the nose, esophagus and the moth. It can be total or partial. In total, the entire larynx is removed while in partial, only a portion is exercised. It is commonly used in the treatment of laryngeal cancers. It is a procedure performed by ENT surgeons.

Sleep Apnea Surgery

This surgery is only done when other treatment modalities are exhausted. The list of surgical options that can be done to treat sleep apnea includes: tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy, tracheostomy, radiofrequency ablation, maxilla-mandibular advancement, palatal surgery, bariatric surgery, nerve stimulation and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.

Thyroidectomy

This is the surgical removal of part or whole of the thyroid tissue. The Parathyroid gland is usually preserved. It can be partial thyroidectomy where part of the thyroid is preserved, or it can be total thyroidectomy where the whole of the thyroid tissue is removed. It is commonly indicated for lived conditions like goiter, thyroid malignancies, etc.

Laryngoscopy

This is the endoscopic examination of the larynx and the back of the throat. The larynx is part of the throat. The procedure is carried out ear nose and throat specialists. There are two types of laryngoscopy procedures, i.e., direct laryngoscopy and indirect laryngoscopy.

Myringoplasty

This is a procedure done to correct perforation in the pars tensa of the eardrum. When the procedure is combined with the reconstruction of the ear ossicles, the procedure is termed tympanoplasty. The operation is normally done while the patient is lying supine with the face turned to one side such that the side being operated lies upward. The procedure is carried out otolaryngologists. There are two major techniques currently being used, i.e., the overlay technique and the underlying technique.

Ossicular Chain Reconstruction

This is a procedure done to treat conductive deafness. It sis a middle ear procedure that is performed by otolaryngologists. Damage middle ear bones i.e. stapes, malleus and incus can be replaced in the process.

Septoplasty

This is a procedure done to straighten the nasal septum that lies between the two nasal septums. The submucous septum is resected and reconstructed. It is done to correct a nasal septum that deviates.

Tympanoplasty

This is a surgical operation done to reconstructs the eardrum or the middle ear bones. There are five type of Tympanoplasty procedures i.e. type l to type V Tympanoplasty procedures.

Neck Dissection

This is a surgical procedure in which the fibrofatty content of the neck is removed as a treatment for metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. Head and neck malignances commonly metastasize to the cervical lymph nodes. There are various surgical options available i.e. radical neck dissection, modified radical neck dissection, selective neck dissection and extended radical neck dissection.

Glossectomy

This is the surgical removal of part or whole of the tongue. It is done to manage malignant tumors like oral cancers.

Facial Nerve Paralysis - Nerve Repair

Dynamic and static reconstruction procedures are employed for facial reanimation in patients suffering from facial nerve paralysis. However, dynamic strategies tend to be more successful and fruitful and should be offered to each patient considering reconstruction, unless health risk contraindications exist. The most common approaches for reconstruction are direct facial nerve repair with or without grafting, nerve transfer, cross-facial nerve grafting, and muscle transfer (either regional muscle or free-muscle neurotized transfer)

Mastoidectomy

A mastoidectomy is surgery to remove cells in the hollow, air-filled spaces in the skull behind the ear. These cells are called mastoid air cells. This surgery used to be a common way to treat an infection in mastoid air cells. In most cases, the condition was caused by an ear infection that spread to the bone in the skull. Mastoidectomy may be used to treat colesteatoma, complications of an ear infection (otitis media), infections of the mastoid bone that do not get better with antibiotics and to place a cochlear implant

Tonsillectomy

Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which both palatine tonsils are removed from a recess in the side of the pharynx called the tonsillar fossa.

Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS)

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is a minimally invasive surgical treatment which uses nasal endoscopes to enlarge the nasal drainage pathways of the paranasal sinuses to improve sinus ventilation.

Neurosurgery 12 procedures

Craniotomy

These are a surgical procedure where bone flaps are temporarily removed from the skull to give access to the brain. The bone flaps are created by specialized tools. Sometimes it’s done under the guidance of CT scans or MRI scans to localize the areas of treatment (stereotactic Craniotomy). A craniotomy is used in stereotactic biopsy of the brain, stereotactic radiosurgery & stereotactic aspiration of hematomas, cysts or abscesses. A craniotomy is also useful in aneurysmal clipping and removal of brain tumors. Are of various types, i.e., translabarynthine Craniotomy, retro-sigmoid Craniotomy, extended bifrontal Craniotomy and supra-orbital Craniotomy.

Peripheral Nerve Surgery

This is practiced by surgeons from various backgrounds with expertise in plastic and reconstructive surgery, neurology, pain medicine, and orthopedics hence the need for a multidisciplinary care. The surgeries included entrapment neuropathies, nerve sheath tumors like schwannomas and acute nerve injuries.

Subdural Hematoma (SDH) Surgery

SDH is an intracranial hemorrhage that takes place beneath the meningeal Dura matter and may be associated with other traumatic brain injuries. They can be spontaneous, iatrogenic like from lumbar punctures or traumatic. SDH can be acute or chronic. SDH surgery involves a craniotomy to decompress brain tissue, stop active bleeding and possibly evacuate the hematoma.

Brain Aneurysm Repair

This is an endovascular surgical procedure. A catheter is usually guided via a small cut in one's groin to an artery and then passed through the vessel to the brain where an aneurysm is situated. Alternatively, the surgery can be performed alongside open craniotomy.

Brain Tumor Surgery

Surgery is the common modality for managing many malignant and most benign tumors. The operation is performed by a neurosurgeon. It helps relieve seizures, remove tumors, take biopsies and enable chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Common techniques used include craniotomy, craniotomy, partial or complete removal, shunting, transsphenoidal surgery, LITT, etc.

Cranioplasty

This is the surgical repair of a deformity or defect in the skull. The defect is normally as a result of a previous injury or surgery. It might also be a congenital defect. The surgery is performed for cosmetic reasons and patient psychological wellbeing.

Chiari Malformation Treatment

Chiari Malformation is a condition in which tissues of the brain protrude into the spinal canal via the foramen magnum. This can lead to hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Treatment involves monitoring of the condition and surgery. Surgical procedures done include Decompressive craniectomy & laminectomy.

Brachial Plexus Injury Treatment

An operation to correct brachial plexus injuries should be performed within 6-7 months the injury as, beyond this period, the prognosis is poor. Teat such as MRI, CT, nerve conduction studies and electromyogram are usually done to determine the extent of the injury. Treatment can either be surgically or non-surgical, i.e., occupational therapy or physiotherapy or splinting /orthosis.

Epilepsy Surgery

This is a procedure done to treat epilepsy in order to reduce or stop the seizures. There are different types of epilepsy surgical procedure. This includes removal of the area in the brain causing this seizures or separating the part of the brain causing these tumors from the rest.

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Surgery

This is a surgical procedure that is done to implant a device that send electrical stimulus signals to brain regions responsible for body movement. Electrode is placed deep in the brain and then connected to a stimulating device. DBS helps remove symptoms of slowness of movement, tremor, walking problems and stiffness that is caused by dystonia, essential tremor or Parkinsonism disease.

Skull Base Surgery

This is minimally invasive, highly specialized neurosurgical technique for diagnosis, evaluating and treating cancerous or benign growths located on the base of the skull, the upper vertebrae of the spine and the underside of the brain.

VP Shunt Surgery

VP shunting is a surgical procedure that primarily treats a condition called hydrocephalus. This condition occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collects in the brain's ventricles. CSF cushions your brain and protects it from injury inside your skull.

Oncology 32 procedures

Breast Cancer Treatment

Treatment of breast cancer depends on the stage. The treatment may involve radiotherapy, surgery or medications. The types of surgeries used included mastectomy (radical mastectomy or simple mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, patery modified radical mastectomy), breast-conserving surgery, lumpectomy and lymph node dissection. Medical therapy involves chemotherapy for breast cancer or systemic hormonal therapy like tamoxifen.

Cervical Cancer Treatment

Treatment of cervical cancer depends on the stage though other factors like the site of the tumor, ones desire for children, overall health, age, and type of cancer. While in stage 0 (CIS), the condition can be managed by loop electrosurgical procedure, simple hysterectomy, cone biopsy, cryotherapy and laser therapy. At stage 1a, cone biopsy is preferred. At stage 1A2, cone biopsy or radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection is preferred, but for those who don’t desire fertility, EBRT and radical hysterectomy are desirable. At stage 1B and 2A, surgery and radiation or concurrent chemoradiation are desirable. At stage 2B, 3 and 4A chemo-radiation is used. At stage 4B, chemo-radiotherapy to try to slow down the tumor.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to treat diseases. But in medicine, it is commonly used when referring to the medical treatment of cancer that utilizes one or more antineoplastic medications as part of a standardized chemotherapeutic regimen. They are given with the intent to reduce symptoms, prolong life or cure cancer. Each cancer has a specific regiment that has been prepared for its management. Medical oncologists administrate chemotherapeutic regiment.

Acute Leukemia Treatment

The statement of acute leukemia depends on the subtype of leukemia. Treatment empathizes long-term cemetery with antineoplastic drugs. Various combination of chemotherapeutic agents has been developed for various leukemias. Oncologist use chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy and stem cell transplant.

Brachytherapy

Its a kind of radiotherapy where a sealed source of radiation is next to or inside the place needing treatment. A radioactive material is placed inside the body hence sometimes referred to as internal radiation. It is used in the management of cancer of the prostate, skin, cervical and breast and other tumors in the body. It can be used together with chemotherapy, surgery or EBRT.

Bladder Cancer Treatment

Medical and surgical modalities are used treatment of bladder cancer. The surgery done is either partial or complete Cystectomy. This involves partial or complete removal of the bladder. Medical therapy includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Cancer Screening

The goal of this exercise is to detect cancers before their symptoms manifest. The test encompasses medical imaging, blood tests, urinalysis and other tests. It is common knowledge that the benefit of having a cancer screen done outweighs outweigh anybody harm that may result from the process. When cancerous tissues are detected early, they are easy to cure or treat. The most common cancers that are routinely screened are breast, colon, oral, prostate, pancreatic, lung, bowel and cervical cancers.

Whipple Procedure

Whipple Procedure also known as kaush-Whipple Procedure, pancretoduodectopmy, pancreaticoduodenectomy is a major surgical procedure dome to remove cancer of head of pancreas. It involves the removal of the common bile duct, the gallbladder, the duodenum and portions of the stomach.

Chronic Leukemia Treatment

The treatment of chronic leukemia depend on a person’s age, reason for treatment, disease risk group, stage of cancer, signs and symptoms of disease, patient preference and overall health. Treatment options included targeted drug therapy, chemotherapy, bone marrow transplant, and immunotherapy.

Glioblastoma Treatment

Glioblastoma (Glioblastoma multiform) is a malignant tumor that affects the spinal cord and the brain. It is usually quite aggressive hence can spread quickly and grow fast. Treatment includes radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery (craniotomy and radiosurgery).

Laryngeal Cancer Treatment

Laryngeal Cancer is a condition which cancerous cells form from larynx tissues. The most common presentation include ear pain and sore throat. Laryngectomy (total) in addition to thyroidectomy and nodal removal followed by radiotherapy is the most common mode of treatment.

Cancer Staging

Staging is the process used to find out the amount of cancer in the body and their locations. The information is used by doctors to formulate the patient treatment plan and to determine their prognosis. There are four different ways staging is done i.e. pathological staging, post-neoadjuvanat or post-therapy staging, clinical staging and restaging (done when cancer recurs after treatment). The four factors used in staging include: site of primary tumor, the tumor size, the involvement of lymph nodes and metastases. Tests done to enable staging process include imaging tests, pathological tests, surgical reports, laboratory tests and physical examination.

CyberKnife Treatment

This is a non-invasive treatment for benign and malignant tumors and other conditions that need radiotherapy. It is a flameless radiosurgery robotic system that uses targeted radiation to destroy tumor in the body. It is designed to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues and organs to radiation. It is pain free, does not need hospitalization or general anesthesia, spare healthy tissues, non-invasive and one only need one to five sessions to complete treatment.

Head and Neck Cancer Treatment (Throat Cancer)

Treatment of head and neck malignancies depend on the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment modalities used in the management of these malignancies included radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy. Surgical options included laser technology, excision, neck dissection or lymph node dissection, and reconstructive surgery. Target therapy is available.

High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

This is a new medical technology that is under development and can be used to treat a wide range of disorderds.it is a treatment modality that aims to kill cancerous cells using high frequency sound waves. It is only useful in the management of a single tumor or a section of a larger tumor hence not useful for highly malignant cancers.

Adrenal Cancer Treatment

Treatment of adrenal cancer depend on the stage. Stage 1 and two are treated surgically which may be combined with radiotherapy or mitotane administration. Stage 3 is treated surgically. This may be preceded by adjuvant radiotherapy or mitotane. For stage 4, a debulking surgery is done followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

Bile Duct Cancer Treatment

Treatment of this condition depend on the stage. Medical procedure used included chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolization, ERCP and radiotherapy. Surgical options available include hepatectomy and pancreatic tumor removal surgery.

Lymph Node Biopsy

A lymph node biopsy is the removal of lymph node tissue for examination under a microscope. The lymph nodes are small glands that make white blood cells (lymphocytes), which fight infection. Lymph nodes may trap the germs that are causing an infection. Cancer often spreads to lymph nodes. A lymph node biopsy is done in an operating room in a hospital. Or, it is done at an outpatient surgical center.

Blood Cancer Treatment (Leukemia)

Leukaemia is cancer of blood-forming tissues, including bone marrow. Many types exist such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Bone Cancer Treatment

Signs and symptoms of bone cancer include Bone pain, Swelling and tenderness near the affected area, Weakened bone, leading to fracture, Fatigue, Unintended weight loss.

Liver cancer Treatment (hepatic cancer)

Cancer that begins in the cells of the liver. Symptoms are uncommon in the early stages of liver cancer. Later, symptoms may include weight loss, stomach pain, vomiting and yellowed skin.

Lung Cancer Treatment

A cancer that begins in the lungs and most often occurs in people who smoke. Two major types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Causes of lung cancer include smoking, second-hand smoke, exposure to certain toxins and family history.

Prostate Cancer Treatment (prostatic carcinoma)

A cancer in a man's prostate, a small walnut-sized gland that produces seminal fluid. A man's prostate produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Symptoms include difficulty with urination, but sometimes there are no symptoms at all.

Mouth Cancer Treatment (Oral cancer)

Cancer that develops in any part of the mouth. Risk factors include tobacco use, heavy alcohol use and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Symptoms include a sore that doesn't heal, a lump or a white or red patch on the inside of the mouth.

Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

Gamma Knife Radiosurgery is a procedure that uses radiation to treat brain tumours and anomalies of the brain. Using specialized medical equipment, high number of radiation beams are passed exactly on the tumor in the brain. This is highly precise technique and causes negligible damage to tissues near the tumor. All the beams combine on the tumor and create a strong radiation, thereby destroying the tumor.

Lymphatic cancer (Lymphoma)

A cancer of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is the body's disease-fighting network. It includes the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland and bone marrow. The main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Symptoms include enlarged lymph nodes, fatigue and weight loss. Treatment may involve chemotherapy, medication, radiation therapy and rarely stem-cell transplant.

Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT)

Image-guided radiation therapy is the process of frequent two and three-dimensional imaging, during a course of radiation treatment, used to direct radiation therapy utilizing the imaging coordinates of the actual radiation treatment plan.

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) uses linear accelerators to safely and painlessly deliver precise radiation doses to a tumor while minimizing the dose to surrounding normal tissue. Your radiation oncologist will speak with you to determine whether IMRT is the most appropriate treatment for you.

Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS)

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a non-surgical radiation therapy used to treat functional abnormalities and small tumors of the brain. It can deliver precisely-targeted radiation in fewer high-dose treatments than traditional therapy, which can help preserve healthy tissue.

Pancreatic Cancer

The pancreas secretes enzymes that aid digestion and hormones that help regulate the metabolism of sugars. This type of cancer is often detected late, spreads rapidly and has a poor prognosis. There are no symptoms in the early stages. Later stages are associated with symptoms, but these can be non-specific, such as lack of appetite and weight loss. Treatment may include surgically removing the pancreas, radiation and chemotherapy.

Radiotherapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.

Bone Marrow Cancer (Multiple myeloma)

A cancer of plasma cells. The plasma cells are a type of white blood cell in the bone marrow. With this condition, a group of plasma cells becomes cancerous and multiplies. The disease can damage the bones, immune system, kidneys and red blood cell count. Symptoms may not be present or may be non-specific, such as loss of appetite, bone pain and fever. Treatments include medication, chemotherapy, corticosteroids, radiation or a stem-cell transplant.

Orthopedics 24 procedures

Bunion Surgery

A bunion is very painful. They are bony bumps which form at the base of one’s big toe. It normally forms a union between this toe and the 1st metatarsal one. Bunion removal surgery helps correct the area of deformity that forms on foot near the big toe. The surgery is sometimes referred to as hallux valgus correction or bunionectomy.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgery

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is the tingling, numbness, weakness plus other problems in one's hand because of pressure being applied to the median nerve as it traverses the wrist. The small space where it passes through in the wrist called the Carpal Tunnel. This surgery is meant to relive the pressure hence relieving the symptoms. The two types of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgeries are open and endoscopic, all available in India.

Hip Replacement

This is an orthopedic surgical procedure where a damaged hip is replaced with an implant, i.e., a prosthesis. This procedure can be performed either as hemi-replacement (only femoral head is replaced) or total replacement (i.e., total hip arthroplasty where both the femoral head and acetabulum are replaced).

Knee Replacement

Knee Replacement (arthroplasty) is an operation used to replace weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve disability and pain. Especially in patients with osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Surgical techniques available include total knee replacement, partial knee replacement and femoral replacement.

Shoulder Replacement

Shoulder Replacement (arthroplasty) is an operation in which a prosthesis is used to replace part or all of the glenohumeral joint to relieve disability and pain. It is used to fix shoulder joint damage or relieve arthritic pain. We have the traditional shoulder total shoulder arthroplasty and the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty approach. The latter has two approaches, i.e., the deltopectoral approach and the transdeltoid approach.

Ankle Arthroscopy

Its an ankle replacement surgery done to replace damaged joint articular surfaces with prosthetic implants. It is currently a more preferred option than arthrodesis.

Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI)

This is a new type of orthopedic procedure that is used to manage to isolate full thickness joint articular surface defect in the knees. It is performed in three stages where about 2000-300 milligrams of cartilage is sampled from a less weight bearing area of a joins, isolated enzymatically then grown in a lab for six weeks before transplanting in damaged areas so that they grow and form new cartilage.

Knee Ligament Surgery (ACL)

This is a procedure done to treat knee ligament tears. It is currently done as a laparoscopic procedure, but open surgery is still practiced in some regions of the world. It helps reduce pain and improve stability in the joint.

Benign Bone Tumor Removal

Benign Bone Tumors are not cancers hence do not metastasize to other areas of the body. They however greatly weaken a one. Common one tumor include giant cell tumors, osteoid osteoma, osteochondroma, and osteoblastoma. Treatment involves surgical excision of the tumor or scrapping out (curettage) of the tumor with bone grafting.

Congenital Hip Dislocation Treatment

Congenital Hip Dislocation is also known as developmental dysplasia of the hip. It is a condition where a child is born with an unstable joint due to abnormal formation of the joint in early fetal development stages. It is more common in girls than boys. Screening for the condition occurs at birth and in the first year of life. A baby younger than 6 years is treated using a Pavlik harness. If this fails, the condition is managed via surgery. Surgical options include open reduction or closed reduction, after which the hip and leg are placed in a cast for at least 12 weeks. A child who is 18 months or older is managed by pelvic or femoral osteotomy to reconstruct their hip.

Achilles Tendon Rupture

This is a complete tear through the tendon, usually about two inches from the calcaneal (heel) bone. The tendon it vital to activities like jumping, walking or running. The rupture is common in those suffering from Achilles tendinitis, illnesses like diabetes or on drugs like steroids and antibiotics. Surgery is essential for faster healing. However, a cast can be used to allow the leg heal naturally but will take quite long.

Ankle Fracture Treatment

Ankle fractures can be treated surgically or non-surgically. The method will depend on the degree of injury and the patient’s choice. The non-surgical options include casting and splinting.

Limb Amputation

This is the removal of a limb by surgery, medical or trauma. As a surgical measure, it is used to control a disease process affected limb like gangrene and malignancy or to control pain. It may also be carried of prophylactically to prevent these problems.

Bone Fracture Treatment

Treatment depend on the severity of the fracture, patient choice and cost of treatment. Medically, reduction is done to fix a dislocated or Brocken bone. Devices available to fix fracture include orthopedic casts, splints, elastic bandages, and traction splint. Therapeutic physical therapy and joint manipulation can be done. Surgery included internal and external fixation.

Clubfoot Treatment

Club foot is also known as congenital talipes equinovarus. It is a combination of four thing in one i.e. cavus, adductus, varus and equinus. There are several types of clubfoot. It is a highly disabling condition if not managed early. The condition can be managed Non-operatively by Ponseti technique, Kite technique and French technique. Surgical options included: Posteromedial soft tissue release, Osteotomies, Triple arthrodesis, Achilles tenotomy and JESS.

Elbow Replacement

This s a procedure done to replace elbow joint that has been damaged by disease or trauma. It is indicated in severe loss of function, instability, joint destruction, severe pain or deformity. It is successful in relieving people of pain and improving the overall quality of life of the patient.

Knee Ligament Surgery (MCL)

The MCL is one of the four ligaments of the knee. A Knee Ligament Surgery is done to treat torn ligament as a result of injurer. As the MCL surgery is located outside the joint, no surgical key hole are usually necessary. The torn ligament can be reattached with staples, screws and screws through a small incision.

Knee Arthroscopy

These is a surgical procedure that is done to teat or diagnose knee joint problems like injuries and diseases. During the procedure, a small incision is made and an Arthroscope (tiny camera) inserted into the knees therapy allowing the examiner to see the inside of the joint on a live screen.

Ankle Fusion Surgery

Also known as ankle arthrodesis, is a surgical procedure done to fuse the different bones that make up the ankle joint into one piece. It is done when the joint become painful and worn out due to disease or previous trauma.

Ankle Replacement

The procedure is also known as total ankle arthroplasty. It is an orthopedic procedure done to replace the ankle joint articular surfaces that have been damaged by disease or injury with prosthetic components. It is done to treat ankle arthritis.

Artificial Limb Services

These services are provided to patient whose limb have been amputated so that they are able to walk again and improve their quality of life. The patient’s needs will be assessed on an individual basis and a variety of prosthetic equipment make available to support ones upper and lower limbs. Rehabilitative service are provided try a dedicated team of specialists.

Abscess Debridement

Abscess is by infectious process that features collection of pus that is surrounded by inflamed tissue. The Debridement entails incision and drainage of the lesion followed by packing then proper dressing of the wound. The patient is then made to undergo a course of antibiotics.

Acromioclavicular Joint Repair

Acromioclavicular Joint is the meeting point of the clavicle and acromion joint in the shoulder. Injuries in the joint result from trauma, fall or sports. Conservative treatment is used in management of minor injuries. Sever injuries need surgery. This may be done through an open procedure or arthroscopy. This are employed in the reconstruction of the joint.

Diagnostic Arthoscopy

Knee Arthroscopy is a surgical technique that can diagnose and treat problems in the knee joint. During the procedure, your surgeon will make a very small incision and insert a tiny camera - called an arthroscope - into your knee. This allows them to view the inside of the joint on a screen.

Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery 21 procedures

Abdominoplasty

Also known as tummy task is a cosmetic procedure that is done to make the abdomen firm and thinner. It involves the removal of excess skin and fat from the lower and middle abdomen to tighten the fascia and muscles of the wall of the abdomen. The procedure is sought after by patient with sagging or loose tissue, especially after marked weight loss or pregnancy. Types of Abdominoplasty available include high lateral tummy tuck, floating Abdominoplasty, circumferential Abdominoplasty, extended or partial or complete Abdominoplasty and combined procedure, e.g., with liposuction.

Breast Implants

It is a prosthesis (saline or silicon) used to change the shape, contour, and size of one's breast. It adds volume to ones existing breast thereby creating a fuller chest. They are used in plastic and reconstructive surgeries to rectify congenital problems, restore natural breast mound after mastectomy or cosmetically in breast argumentation procedures.

Breast Lift

Also known as mastopexy .it is a plastic surgery mammoplasty procedure used for raising sagging breast tissue on a lady’s chest by modifying and changing the contour, the elevation, and size of the breasts. Done by women whose breast have changed due to breastfeeding, pregnancy, gravity, aging, heredity and weight fluctuations. The procedure helps rejuvenate one's figure by creating a rest profile that is uplifted and more youthful.

Arm Lift

Also known as Brachioplasty, is a procedure to provided increased contour and reshape the upper arms and at the same time connect the area to the chest wall. Techniques for Brachioplasty included minimal incision Brachioplasty, liposuction of the arm, traditional Brachioplasty, fish-incision Brachioplasty, extended Brachioplasty, superficial fascial system suspension, use of molds and non-excisional Brachioplasty.

Body Lift

This is a plastic surgery procedure done on patients with excess fat, tissues, and fat that linger after a significant weight loss. Depending on the position of the excess skin, patients can choose to undergo lower, mid or upper body lift.

Breast Reconstruction

This is a plastic surgical technique that tries to restore the breasts to a near-normal appearance, size, and shapes following a mastectomy.

Chin Augmentation

This is a surgical procedure that involves the reduction than the addition of surgical implants in a patients chin. The procedure can take the form of argumentation of chins using implants or chin height reduction or rounding of the chin by osteotomy.

Dimple Creation Surgery

This is a minimally invasive cosmetic procedure that is done to create a dimple. A dimple is a natural indentation that is usually small and circular in the sacral, chin, or cheek region. Natural dimples on the cheek are the small opening on the buccinators muscle. It gives one a great looking smile.

Jaw Shaping

This is a cosmetic procedure done to correct a patient’s jawline. It is commonly done on patients suffering from bruxism or patient who presents with a complaint of having rectangular or square jawlines thus making one's facial structure to look squarish. Treatment involves Botox injection. Jaw reduction surgeries are available.

Otoplasty

This is a surgical or non-surgical procedure that is done to correct the defects and deformities of the pinna, reconstructed deformed, absent or defective external ear, and consequent to traumatic or congenital conditions.

Rhinoplasty

This is a surgical (plastic and reconstructive) procedure for correcting and reconstructing the nose. It aesthetically improves the nose by resolving congenital disabilities, nasal trauma, a failed primary rhinoplasty, or respiratory impediments and restored nasal functions.

Varicose Veins Treatment

Varicose Veins are enlarged and gnarled vein that appears commonly in the feet and legs. Treatment usually helps though the condition is incurable. Treatment involves using devices like compressing stocking and elastic bandage. Weight loss and physical exercise also help. Medical procedures included sclerothrapy, ambulatory phabectomy, and laser therapy and radiofrequency ablation. Surgery involves vein stripping.

Belt Lipectomy

This is a surgical procedure that is done to reshape a patient’s buttocks, thighs, hips and abdomen. The procedure is actually an extension of the high lateral tension tummy tuck, a concept that Ted Lockwood developed.

Perineoplasty

This is a plastic surgical procedure that is done to correct clinical conditions (defect, deformity, damage) of the anus and the vagina. The procedure helps to resolve intraoital stenosis, decreased sexual stimulation, vaginismus, damaged perineum, genital warts, dyspareunia, vaginal loosening, vaginal itchiness, and vulvar vestibulitis.

Tummy Tuck or Abdominal Wall Surgery

Abdominal wall surgery is a procedure that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. It is also called a tummy tuck. It can range from a simple mini-tummy tuck to more extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which is another way to remove fat. But, abdominal wall surgery is sometimes combined with liposuction. Your surgery will be done in an operating room in a hospital. You will receive general anesthesia. This will keep you asleep and pain-free during the procedure. The surgery takes 2 to 6 hours. You can expect to stay in the hospital for 1 to 3 days after surgery.

Breast Augmentation

Breast augmentation is a procedure to enlarge or change the shape of the breasts. Breast augmentation is done by placing implants behind breast tissue or under the chest muscle. An implant is a sac filled with either sterile salt water (saline) or a material called silicone.

Breast Reduction Surgery

Breast reduction is surgery to reduce the size of the breasts. It is done under general anesthesia. This is medicine that keeps you asleep and pain-free. For a breast reduction, the surgeon removes some of the breast tissue and skin. Your nipples may be moved higher to re-position them for cosmetic reasons.

Eyelid Lift (Blepharoplasty)

Eyelid lift surgery is done to repair sagging or drooping upper eyelids (ptosis) and remove excess skin from the eyelids. The surgery is called blepharoplasty. Sagging or drooping eyelids occur with increasing age. Some people are born with droopy eyelids or develop a disease that causes eyelid drooping.

Face lift (Face and neck)

A face-lift (rhytidectomy) is a cosmetic surgical procedure to improve the look of your face and neck. A neck lift (platysmaplasty) is often done as part of a face-lift. You might choose to have a face-lift if your facial skin is beginning to droop, a common occurrence with aging.

Face lift - Face, neck and upper and lower eyelids

A face-lift (rhytidectomy) is a cosmetic surgical procedure to improve the look of your face and neck. A neck lift (platysmaplasty) is often done as part of a face-lift. You might choose to have a face-lift if your facial skin is beginning to droop, a common occurrence with aging. Upper lid blepharoplasty removal of excess skin, and occasionally fat from the upper eyelids in order to refresh the appearance of the eyes. It can be combined with a lower lid blepharoplasty or brow lift to give a more complete rejuvenation to the eyes and upper third of the face.

Cheiloplasty (Lip Reduction)

Cheiloplasty or lip reduction surgery is a cosmetic surgical procedure that helps to treat unusually big, fat or protruding lips.

Urology 16 procedures

Bladder Neck Incision (BNI)

This is a procedure done on men experiencing difficulty passing urine due to benign prostatic enlargement or urinary tract obstruction from a tight prostate. The patient usually presents with frequency, urgency, urine dribbling, hesitancy, poor urine stream and incomplete emptying of the balder. The operation helps relieve these symptoms of obstruction.

Prostatectomy

This is a surgical procedure that removes part or whole of the prostate gland. It is usually used in the treatment of benign prostatic enlargement (BPH), or prostate canacer.it can be performed in several ways. For prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy is recommended. The current technique for performing this include open radical prostatectomy (retropubic or transvesical), laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. For benign enlarged prostate, simple prostatectomy is recommended. Newer techniques for managing BPH include transurethral resection of the prostate, transurethral laser-induced prostatectomy and Trans-urethral incision of the prostate. Noninvasive techniques include cryotherapy, laser therapy, thermal ablation and balloon dilation.

Pyeloplasty

This is a surgical revision or reconstruction procedure of renal pelvis to decompress or drain the kidneys.it is performed to manage ureteropelvic junction obstructions provided the residual renal function is still adequate. Congenital hydronephrosis is its most common presentation in pediatrics.

Circumcision

This is the removal of the penile foreskin. It is the most commonly performed procedure in the world. In it, the foreskin is opened. Then adhesions removed before being separated from the glans and cut. The penis is then sutured. A recent study indicated that it lowers one's risk of contracting HIV by60%.

Cystectomy

This is the surgical removal of part or whole (radical) of the urinary bladder. Sometimes the term is used to refer to the removal of the gallbladder or a cyst. This is commonly performed after a diagnosis of bladder cancer.

Erectile Dysfunction Treatment

Erectile Dysfunction is the inability of a man to keep or get an erection firm to have sexual intercourse. It is commonly described as important. The condition can be managed medically. 1st the patient has to be evaluated for a treatment plan is made, the plan may incorporate assistive devices like pumps or medications.

Bladder Stone Removal

This is a procedure done to remove renal stones that have formed in the bladder or pound their way into the bladder hence causing obstruction and pain. Various procedures are used to remove the stones, e.g., percutaneous suprapubic crystolitholapaxy and open cystostomy.

Cystoscopy

This is the endoscopic examination of the bladder. During the procedure, an endoscopic tube with a light and camera at the end is inserted into one's urethra, and into your bladder to visualize the inside of the bladder.

Kidney Stones Treatment

The treatment of renal stones included taking a lot of water to help pass these stones and use of painkiller to relive renal colonic pain. Drug used included NSAIDs, diuretics narcotics and urinary retention drugs. Medical procedures that can be done to remove the stones include laser lithotripsy, uteroscopic stone removal and extracorporeal shockwave therapy.

Prostate Biopsy

This is a procedure done to take a sample from the prostate for histological analysis. It is dome to detect or diagnose cancer of the prostate especially after blood PSA level; rises to the level of prostate cancer. There are several options that can be used to take the sample i.e. MRI-guided biopsy, ultrasound guided biopsy, Transrectal biopsy and transurethral biopsy.

TURP (Transurethral Resection of Prostate)

Transurethral Resection of Prostate is a surgery to remove the inside part of the prostate gland. It is done in order to treat symptoms of an enlarged prostate. The surgery takes about 1 hour. You will be given medicine before surgery so you don't feel pain. You may get general anesthesia in which you are asleep and pain-free or spinal anesthesia in which you are awake, but relaxed and pain-free. The surgeon will insert a scope through the tube that carries urine from your bladder out of the penis. This tube is called the urethra. A special cutting tool is placed through the scope. It is used to remove the inside part of your prostate gland using electricity.

Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL - Kidney Stone Removal)

Percutaneous (through the skin) urinary procedures help drain urine from your bladder and get rid of kidney stones. A percutaneous nephrostomy is the placement of a small, flexible rubber tube (catheter) through your skin into your kidney to drain your urine. It is inserted through your back or flank. Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (or nephrolithotomy) is the passing of a special medical instrument through your skin into your kidney. This is done to remove kidney stones.

Ureteroscopy (URS)

Ureteroscopy (URS) is a form of minimally invasive surgery using a small telescope that is passed through the urethra and into the ureter to remove a stone. Often the stone requires fragmentation with a laser which then allows the smaller fragments to removed with a grasping device.

Penile Implant

A penile prosthesis is another treatment option for men with erectile dysfunction (ED). These devices are either malleable or inflatable. The simplest type of prosthesis consists of a pair of malleable (bendable) rods surgically implanted within the erection chambers of the penis.

Radical Cystectomy

Radical cystectomy is the removal of the entire bladder, nearby lymph nodes (lymphadenectomy), part of the urethra, and nearby organs that may contain cancer cells. In men , the prostate, the seminal vesicles, and part of the vas deferens are also removed.

Radical prostatectomy

Radical prostatectomy is an operation to remove the prostate gland and tissues surrounding it. This usually includes the seminal vesicles and some nearby lymph nodes. Radical prostatectomy can cure prostate cancer in men whose cancer is limited to the prostate.

Neurology 10 procedures

Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) Treatment

CCSVI is a term used to describe the compromise of blood flow in veins draining the CNS. Failure to treat the condition can, in the long run, predispose one to multiple sclerosis. It is commonly diagnosed using a Trans-cranial Doppler ultrasound, an MRI scan or Doppler sonography. It can be managed by a surgical procedure known as venous angioplasty where a surgeon will insert a balloon to keep veins open, clear a blockage & restore blood flow to spinal cord and brain.

Parkinson's Disease Treatment

The disease is only diagnosed after a proper history then physical and neurological exam. Imaging scans are not diagnostic by only help rule out other disorders. The disease is not curable but can be controlled using drugs like carbidopa-levodopa, dopamine, MAO-B inhibitors and, COMP inhibitors, anticholinergic and amantadine. When surgery is advisee, deep brain stimulation can be done.

Alzheimer's Disease Consultation

This is the evaluation of a patient suffering from dementia and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. The doctor will assess the patient and prepares an appropriate treatment plan and inform the guardian on hoe w the patient should be cared for, the prognosis and booking future reviews.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Consultation

This is the evaluation of a patient who has ALS. The doctor will assess the patient and formulate an appropriate treatment plan and inform the guardian on hoe w the patient should be cared for, and advise on of follow up.

Neurological Rehabilitation

This is a physician-supervised program that is designed for patients with trauma, disorders or diseases of the nervous system. The program improves one's functions, reduce symptoms and greatly improve the overall well-being of a patient.

Dementia Management

Dementia is the overall term used to describe a range of clinical conditions that are associated with the decline in one’s memory or thinking skills to the extent that one is unable to perform his/her normal daily life activities. The treatment if Dementia depends on its cause. Once the cause is determined, the condition will improve once the cause is properly managed.

Epilepsy Treatment

Epilepsy is recurrent seizes in one’s brain. The management of epilepsy can be done by drugs, and sometimes devices, dietary changes or surgery. Anticonvulsants are the main stray of treatment. This is however influenced by the type of epilepsy, the age of patient, pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Migraine Treatment

This is a headache of that varies in intensity and is often accompanied by sound and light sensitivity and nausea. The condition can be managed by medications. The drugs can either be pain-relieving or preventive. Pain relieving medications included painkillers, triptans, ergots, anti-nausea drugs, opioids, and glucocorticoids. Preventative medications included cardiovascular drugs, antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, painkillers, and Botox.

Neurology Consultation

This is an appointment with a neurologist (physician that has subspecialized in neurology) for treatment, diagnosis or management of disorders that affect the nervous system.

Trigeminal Neuralgia Treatment

Trigeminal Neuralgia is a chronic pain in the face arising from disorders that damage cranial nerve V i.e. trigeminal nerve. Treatment included injections (e.g. Botox injection and glycerol injection), medications (anticonvulsants, and antispasmodic agents) and surgery (microvasculer decompression, brain stereotactic radiosurgery). Other include balloon compression and radiofrequency thermal lesioning.

Reproductive Medicine 7 procedures

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

This is an assisted reproductive technology that is used to achieve conception. It normally the only means available to achieve pregnancy when fallopian tubes are obstructed/blocked. In it, a woman egg and sperm will be left in a laboratory culture dish to fertilize after which the embryo is placed in the woman’s uterus. It is a complicated technology though useful for couples with infertility.

Artificial Insemination

This is an assisted reproductive technology where the male partner’s sperm or donor sperm is injected into the female uterus at around the time of ovulation so that the fertilization can take place to achieve pregnancy.

Assisted Hatching

It is a type of assisted reproductive technology. In it, the embryologist manipulates the female egg under a microscope so at to create a small hole in its zona pellucida to allow sperms to enter hence fertilize the ovum.

Blastocyst Transfer

This is a type of assisted reproductive technology where a blastocyst, i.e., a human embryo that is about 5-7 day old is transferred into the female womb after in-vitro fertilization.

Donor Egg IVF

This is the female products of ovulation form a donor (known or unknown) which is to be fertilized by sperms for implantation into an infertile lady or for other reasons the client's eggs cannot be used.

Donor Sperm

These are sperms usually from unknown persons that will be used to inseminate a lady for purposes of procreation artificially. A client lady is sometimes allowed to choose the donor.

Tubal Cannulation

This is a procedure that is done to clear blockages/obstructions in a woman’s fallopian tubes. Tubal obstruction is the most common cause of infertility as the tubes are vulnerable surgical damage or infections. It is done by gynecologist under the guidance of a hysteroscopy.

Cosmetology 7 procedures

Chemical Peel

This is a technique that is used to smoothen and improve one’s skin texture. The most commonly treated skin is the facial skin. The skin can be improved and all scars removed. The technique works by removing the outer most layer of one’s skin. This is accomplished using agents that will injure a controlled injury to the skin which is the given time to heal naturally. The most common chemical agents used include beta hydroxyl acid peels, retinoic acid peels, jessers peel and phenol cotton oil peel.

Laser Tattoo Removal

Tattoos are usually permanent once done. This new technology allows one to get rid of tattoo pigment particles. It does this by heating up this particle and fragmenting them into small pieces. These small particles will them be cleared by the body’s immune system. Tattoo removal by the laser may require several visits to the doctor typically at least seven weeks apart.

Laser Skin Resurfacing

This is a cosmetic procedure that helps to rejuvenate one's skin and diminish the effect of aging, some facial disorders, and the sun. It helps reduce the appearance of imperfections on one's skin.it is a convenient, safe and effective procedure. It is quite cost-effective.

Cellulite Treatment

A Cellulite is a dimple lumpy flesh on the hips, thighs, stomach and the buttocks. They occur when deposits of fat push through connective tissue that lies beneath the skin. Some techniques are used to manage these conditions. These include laser treatment, acoustic wave therapy, subcision, vacuum-assisted precise tissue release, carboxytherapy, radiotherapy, ionithermie cellulite reduction treatment; laser-assisted liposuction, ultrasonic liposuction, and endermologie.

Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) Skin Treatment

This is a new technology currently used by medical and cosmetic practitioners to perform various skin treatment for therapeutic and aesthetic purposes including photo-rejuvenation (e.g., management of sun damage, thread veins, and skin pigmentation), hair removal and dermatologic conditions like acne.

Laser Hair Removal

This is the process of removing unwanted hair by exposing them to a beam of pulses of light that will destroy the hair follicles. The intense heat of the laser will damage these hair follicle inhibiting any future growth.

Skin Tightening Treatment

These is a minimally invasive cosmetic procedure that is done to tighten sagging or loose skin and reduce appearance of wrinkles in one’s neck, face and body. Laser skin tightening uses heat energy to stimulate elastin and collagen reduction in deeper layers of the skin thereby gradually improving the skin texture and tone.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) 4 procedures

TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction)

TESE - Testicular Sperm Extraction (also known as TESA, or testicular sperm aspiration) is one of the surgical sperm harvesting techniques used for retrieving sperm in patients with azoospermia. Since there is no need to cut the scrotum, with the result that there is no scar at all. This is why this is the preferred method of choice in most centers in India, UK and Belgium.

PESA (Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration)

PESA or Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA), does not require a surgical incision. A small needle is passed directly into the head of the epididymis through the scrotal skin and fluid is aspirated. The embryologist retrieves the sperm cells from the fluid and prepares them for ICSI.

Intrauterine insemination (IUI)

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a fertility treatment that involves placing sperm inside a woman’s uterus to facilitate fertilization. The goal of IUI is to increase the number of sperm that reach the fallopian tubes and subsequently increase the chance of fertilization. IUI provides the sperm an advantage by giving it a head start, but still requires a sperm to reach and fertilize the egg on its own. It is a less invasive and less expensive option compared to in vitro fertilization.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Package

In vitro fertilisation is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro.

Specialists

Specialists working with Medipol University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey

Dr. Mustafa ACET MD. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

  • 1984-1990, İstanbul Universit Cerrahpaşa, Medical Faculty İstanbul
  • 2013- at presently Medipol University Hospital IVF Unit İstanbul
  • 2006-2013 Şişli Memorial Hospital IVF Unit IVF and Gyneco-laporoscopy and hysteroscopy Specialist MD İstanbul

Dr. Hamdi KARAKAYALI MD. General Surgery

  • From 2014 to present: Medipol University Hospital İstanbul
  • 2011-2013 Head of Department of General Surgery and the Transplantation Unit at İstanbul Gaziosmanpasa Hospital İstanbul
  • 1994-2011 Baskent University Department of General Surgery

Dr. Ahmet BİLİCi MD Oncology

  • Oncology ( Cancer Treatment ),Medical Oncology

Dr. Naci KARACAOĞLAN MDNaci KARACAOĞLAN MD Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery

  • 2010-Presently: İstanbul Medipol University Medical Faculty Deanship İstanbul
  • 2006 - 2010: Medipol University Hospital Medical Director İstanbul
  • 1996-1997 Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical Faculty Assistant Medical Director

Arzu İRBAN MD. Anesthetics

  • 2013 - Presently: Medipol University Hospital Algology Specialist, Anesthesiology and Reanimation Specialist İstanbul
  • 2011 - 2013: Acıbadem Hospital Anaesthesie Specialist İstanbul
  • 2009 - 2011 Maltepe Hospital Anaesthesie Specialist İstanbul

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