The Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya

for Breast Cancer Treatment

Breast Cancer Treatment

Treatment of breast cancer depends on the stage. The treatment may involve radiotherapy, surgery or medications. The types of surgeries used included mastectomy (radical mastectomy or simple mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, patery modified radical mastectomy), breast-conserving surgery, lumpectomy and lymph node dissection. Medical therapy involves chemotherapy for breast cancer or systemic hormonal therapy like tamoxifen.

Overview

Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) offers healthcare services that are relevant to the communities that we serve and beyond regardless of gender, faith or ethnic origin.

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Languages spoken

English, Swahili (Kiswahili), Translators can be arranged for other Languages

Services

Medical records transfer

Rehabilitation

Airport pickup

Hotel booking

Special offer for group stays

Free Wifi

Private rooms for patients available

Parking available

Pharmacy

Translation services

Interpreter services

Local transportation booking

Family accommodation

Visa / Travel office

Religious facilities

Nursery / Nanny services

Entertainment options

Business centre services

Personal assistance / Concierge

Procedures

Ophthalmology 4 procedures

Cataract Surgery

This is a procedure where the lens in one’s eye that has become cloudy (cataract) is removed and replaced with an artificial Len (called IOL or intraocular Len). Cataract is a condition that leads to loss of vision by clouding of one’s natural eye Len that lies behind the pupil and iris. It is performed by an ophthalmologist.

Detached Retina Treatment

The retinal detachment is an emergency condition where the pulls from the bold vessel that supply it with nutrients and oxygen. It’s accompanied by floaters (cobwebs or specks) and flashes in one's vision. If not fixed leads to blindness. The condition can be managed via various treatment modalities by an ophthalmologist. The notable procedures include vitrectomy, pneumatic retinopexy and scleral buckle procedure.

Cornea Transplant

This is corneal grafting. It is a surgical procedure where a person’s diseased or damaged cornea is replaced by a corneal tissue that is donated.

Vitrectomy (Retinal Detachment Repair)

Retinal detachment repair is eye surgery to place a retina back into its normal position. The retina is the light-sensitive tissue in the back of the eye. Detachment means that it has pulled away from the layers of tissue around it. Most retinal detachment repair operations are urgent. A detached retina does not get a supply of oxygen. This causes the cells in the area to die, which can lead to blindness. If holes or tears in the retina are found before the retina detaches, the eye doctor can close the holes using a laser.

Gastroenterology 5 procedures

Cholecystectomy

This is a surgical procedure used to remove the gallbladder i.e., pear- shaped organ below the right lobe of the liver where bile is stored. The gallbladder can be removed due to inflammation (cholecystitis), gallstones if it leads to pancreatitis, gallbladder cancer, and biliary colic. The procedure can either be open or laparoscopic. Laparoscopic surgery is minimally invasive and only performed by a laparoscopic surgeon. Currently, advanced laparoscopic surgeries use single incisions, a technique called single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) or laparoendoscopic single site surgery.

Endoscopy

It is a nonsurgical procedure done to examine a person’s gastrointestinal tract. A patient may be anesthetized or fully conscious during the process. It is used in the investigation of gastrointestinal symptoms, confirmation of diagnosis and for treatment purposes, e.g., widening and esophageal stricture. The most commonly performed endoscopic procedure is esophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD). Endoscopy is also used to examine the respiratory tract (rhinoscopy or bronchoscopy), the ear (otoscope), the urinary tract (cystoscopy) and female reproductive tract (gynoscopy). The technology is also available for use in pregnancy, plastic surgery, orthopedic surgery, endodontic surgeries, endoscopic spinal procedure and endoscopic endonasal surgeries.

Gallstones Treatment

Treatment of gallstones is based on one's symptoms and results of diagnostic procedures. The treatment options include cholecystectomy (surgery to remove the gallbladder) and drugs meant to dissolve the stones.

Gastroscopy

This is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure. In the process, a flexible thin tube, i.e., an endoscope is inserted into the gullet, stomach, and the duodenum. The endoscope has a camera at its end. The most commonly used terms in hospitals to refer to the procedure are upper GI endoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD).

Gastroenterology Consultation

A gastroenterologist is a physician that has unique training and experience in the management of liver and gastrointestinal diseases. In a Gastroenterology Consultation, the doctor will examine the patient’s abdomen, possibly do an endoscopic procedure, order appropriate investigations on the patient’s and formulate or review the patient's treatment plan.

General Surgery 3 procedures

Appendectomy

This is the surgical removal of the appendix. It is performed after a patient suffering from acute appendicitis. It can be performed as laparoscopic or as an open procedure.

Diagnostic Laparoscopy

This is a procedure done by a gynecologist to view a woman’s reproductive organs using a laparoscope. A laparoscope is a thin tube that is normally passed through a small cut in the abdomen. It helps the doctor to directly see the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus and nearby organs. It can be issued to localize the source of pain, examine body tissues, confirm PID or endometriosis and look for fallopian tube blockage.

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

In a sleeve gastrectomy, also known as a vertical sleeve gastrectomy or gastric sleeve procedure, the outer margin of the stomach is removed to restrict food intake, leaving a sleeve of stomach, roughly the size and shape of a banana, and the pylorus, the muscle that controls emptying of food from the stomach into the intestine. A sleeve gastrectomy is a purely restrictive procedure. Sleeve gastrectomy - posselt slides. The sleeve gastrectomy, by reducing the size of the stomach, allows the patient to feel full after eating less and taking in fewer calories. The surgery removes that portion of the stomach that produces a hormone that can makes a patient feel hungry. Sleeve gastrectomy is a simpler operation than the gastric bypass procedure because it does not involve rerouting of or re-connection of the intestines. The sleeve gastrectomy, unlike the Lap-band, does not require the use of a banding device to be implanted around a portion of the stomach.

Dentistry 3 procedures

Dental Checkup

This is a visit to a dentist. The dentist will carry out an inspection of the teeth and surrounding soft tissue to identify problems one may not be feeling or seeing. People with low risk for dental diseases need to visit a dentist at least once a year while high-risk individuals need 3 to 4 visits a year.

Braces

These are orthodontic devices used to straighten and align teeth and possibly position them with regards to a person’s natural bite. It helps improve a person’s cosmetic appearance and general health.

Dental Implant

These are surgical components that are used in dental procedures to create an interface between the jawbone or the skull to support dental prostheses like bridges, facial prostheses, denture, crown or to act just as an orthodontic anchor.

Cardiology 3 procedures

Cardiac Assessment

This is the systematic examination of a patient’s cardiovascular system with the aim of diagnosing cardiovascular problems. The assessment encompasses taking a comprehensive history of a patient, carrying out a thorough physical examination of a patient and finally doing investigations such as electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, central venous pressure, etc.

Coronary Angiogram

It is a type of cardiac catheterization procedure. It is performed for both interventional and diagnostic purposes. In this procedure, a dye that is radiopaque is injected into the blood vessels of one’s heart. An X-ray machine is then used to take serial images (angiograms) that give a picture of how the blood vessels are. Based on the finding, an interventional cardiologist will open the clogged vessels (angioplasty).

Coronary Angioplasty

Also known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) Thais is a procedure that is used to widen narrowed or blocked coronary arteries. The procedure is carried out by an interventional cardiologist. When combined with stenting, it is referred to as percutaneous coronary intervention. Is should be done within thirty minutes to 2 hours after a having a cardiac event.

Diagnostic Imaging 5 procedures

MRI Scan Magnetic Resonance Imaging

This is an imaging modality that used strong radio waves and magnetic field to produce imaged of the internal structure of the body. The scanner itself is a large tube that comprises powerful magnets. One lies inside the tube while getting scanned. The machine can produce two type of images, i.e., T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. Sometimes, contrast is used to enhance the images.

Chest X-Ray

This a radiograph of the chest used to diagnose chest diseases injuries. It is done using an X-ray machine that passes X-rays through the chest into a film to create the image.

CT Scan (Computed Tomography)

This is a modern imaging technique that makes use of that makes use of computed processed X-ray measurements that are taken at different angles to produce tomographic images of specific areas of objects scanned thereby allowing the user to see the internal structure of the object without physically cutting them. It is used in the diagnosis, screening or prevention of diseases.

Diagnostic X-Rays

This is noninvasive imaging modality that involves exposing parts of one’s body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce images of inside the body. They are used for investigating patient’s complaints, e.g., chronic cough, abdominal pains, bone injuries and fever.

Abdominal CT Scan

This is a diagnostic radiological imaging test that is done to help detect diseases of the colon, small bowel and other abdominal organs or determine the cause of abdominal pain.it is noninvasive, accurate, fast and painless.

Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) 3 procedures

Laryngeal Surgery

These are surgeries done on the larynx to remove various pathologies such as laryngeal cancer, laryngeal papilloma, laryngeal granulomas, etc. Total laryngectomy (open) is the complete removal of the larynx while partial is incomplete removal. This normally depends on the location and stage of cancer. Endoscopic laryngeal surgeries are getting common. Microlaryngeal surgeries are used to operate on one's vocal cord. Laser surgery is a recent addition.

Audiometry

It is a test done to test one’s ability to perceive sound. The machine used to do the test is called an audiometer. It measures ones hearing acuity based on variations in sound tone, pitch, and intensity. It helps grade conduction deafness and rules out sensorineural hearing loss.

Neck Dissection

This is a surgical procedure in which the fibrofatty content of the neck is removed as a treatment for metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. Head and neck malignances commonly metastasize to the cervical lymph nodes. There are various surgical options available i.e. radical neck dissection, modified radical neck dissection, selective neck dissection and extended radical neck dissection.

Gynecology 2 procedures

Gynecologic Laparoscopy

It is a new alternative technique to open surgeries. It allows a surgeon to look into one's pelvis. It can be sued to remove adhesions, manage ectopic pregnancies, manage ovarian cysts, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and myomectomy, do female sterilization (tubal ligation), diagnose & treat endometriosis and cancer investigation and lymph node sampling in cancer treatment.

Hysteroscopy

Hysteroscopy gets its name from the thin, lighted tool used to view the womb, called a hysteroscope. This tool sends images of the inside of the womb to a video monitor. Before the procedure, you will be given medicine to help you relax and block pain. Sometimes, medicine is given to help you fall asleep. During the procedure the provider places the scope through the vagina and cervix, into the womb, gas or fluid may be placed into the womb so it expands. This helps the provider see the area better and pictures of the womb can be seen on the video screen.

Neurosurgery 2 procedures

Peripheral Nerve Surgery

This is practiced by surgeons from various backgrounds with expertise in plastic and reconstructive surgery, neurology, pain medicine, and orthopedics hence the need for a multidisciplinary care. The surgeries included entrapment neuropathies, nerve sheath tumors like schwannomas and acute nerve injuries.

Brain Tumor Surgery

Surgery is the common modality for managing many malignant and most benign tumors. The operation is performed by a neurosurgeon. It helps relieve seizures, remove tumors, take biopsies and enable chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Common techniques used include craniotomy, craniotomy, partial or complete removal, shunting, transsphenoidal surgery, LITT, etc.

Oncology 3 procedures

Breast Cancer Treatment

Treatment of breast cancer depends on the stage. The treatment may involve radiotherapy, surgery or medications. The types of surgeries used included mastectomy (radical mastectomy or simple mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, patery modified radical mastectomy), breast-conserving surgery, lumpectomy and lymph node dissection. Medical therapy involves chemotherapy for breast cancer or systemic hormonal therapy like tamoxifen.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to treat diseases. But in medicine, it is commonly used when referring to the medical treatment of cancer that utilizes one or more antineoplastic medications as part of a standardized chemotherapeutic regimen. They are given with the intent to reduce symptoms, prolong life or cure cancer. Each cancer has a specific regiment that has been prepared for its management. Medical oncologists administrate chemotherapeutic regiment.

Cancer Screening

The goal of this exercise is to detect cancers before their symptoms manifest. The test encompasses medical imaging, blood tests, urinalysis and other tests. It is common knowledge that the benefit of having a cancer screen done outweighs outweigh anybody harm that may result from the process. When cancerous tissues are detected early, they are easy to cure or treat. The most common cancers that are routinely screened are breast, colon, oral, prostate, pancreatic, lung, bowel and cervical cancers.

Orthopedics 5 procedures

Knee Replacement

Knee Replacement (arthroplasty) is an operation used to replace weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve disability and pain. Especially in patients with osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Surgical techniques available include total knee replacement, partial knee replacement and femoral replacement.

Achilles Tendon Rupture

This is a complete tear through the tendon, usually about two inches from the calcaneal (heel) bone. The tendon it vital to activities like jumping, walking or running. The rupture is common in those suffering from Achilles tendinitis, illnesses like diabetes or on drugs like steroids and antibiotics. Surgery is essential for faster healing. However, a cast can be used to allow the leg heal naturally but will take quite long.

Ankle Fracture Treatment

Ankle fractures can be treated surgically or non-surgically. The method will depend on the degree of injury and the patient’s choice. The non-surgical options include casting and splinting.

Bone Fracture Treatment

Treatment depend on the severity of the fracture, patient choice and cost of treatment. Medically, reduction is done to fix a dislocated or Brocken bone. Devices available to fix fracture include orthopedic casts, splints, elastic bandages, and traction splint. Therapeutic physical therapy and joint manipulation can be done. Surgery included internal and external fixation.

Knee Arthroscopy

These is a surgical procedure that is done to teat or diagnose knee joint problems like injuries and diseases. During the procedure, a small incision is made and an Arthroscope (tiny camera) inserted into the knees therapy allowing the examiner to see the inside of the joint on a live screen.

Spinal Surgery 1 procedures

Spine Surgery

This is a surgery done on the spine to treat back pain, or other damages are done on the spine by trauma or disease scoliosis, spinal stenosis, and disc herniation. It is recommended when conservative treatments are unsuccessful. It can either be done as an open or minimally invasive procedure. Common surgical approaches are lateral, posterior and anterior. Spinal surgical techniques included laminotomy, laminectomy, microdiscectomy, disc replacement, spinal fusion, and foraminotomy.

Urology 3 procedures

Bladder Stone Removal

This is a procedure done to remove renal stones that have formed in the bladder or pound their way into the bladder hence causing obstruction and pain. Various procedures are used to remove the stones, e.g., percutaneous suprapubic crystolitholapaxy and open cystostomy.

Cystoscopy

This is the endoscopic examination of the bladder. During the procedure, an endoscopic tube with a light and camera at the end is inserted into one's urethra, and into your bladder to visualize the inside of the bladder.

Kidney Stones Treatment

The treatment of renal stones included taking a lot of water to help pass these stones and use of painkiller to relive renal colonic pain. Drug used included NSAIDs, diuretics narcotics and urinary retention drugs. Medical procedures that can be done to remove the stones include laser lithotripsy, uteroscopic stone removal and extracorporeal shockwave therapy.

General Medicine 7 procedures

Medical Examination

This is the process by which physicians assess the body of a patient for sings disease. In medical practice, it is terms used commonly to refer to is included a clinical examination or physical examination. It is done after a comprehensive history of a patient has been taken. It thus helps in diagnosis and formulating the treatment plan.

Abdominal Examination

This is the physical examination of the abdomen to identify signs of disease; it is done in four stages, i.e., inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation.

Female Health Checkup

This is a gynecological procedure used to assess the female reproductive system. It involved a physical exam of the female perineum and possibly a specular exam, Apart from this various imaging and laboratory tests can be ordered to help the doctor make a proper conclusion.

General Medicine Consultation

This is a visit to a physician or general medical practitioner. The doctor will take the patient history and carry out a physical exam of all systems after which proper investigations are done and a treatment plan formulated.

Deep Wound Treatment

A deep wound is one that cuts deeper than a quarter an inch beneath the skin surface. Due to their depth, this wound is likely to involve damage to tendons, major blood vessels, ligaments or internal organs. This can lead to both external and internal bleeding. These wounds require urgent treatment to avoid complications like shock. The bleeding has to be arrested, then cl4ned and properly dressed. Antibiotics and tetanus vaccine must be administered to the patient.

Vaccination

This is the administration of a vaccine to a person to stimulate their immune system thereby developing adaptive immunity against the target pathogen.

Male Health Checkup

This is a collection of tests and medical checks that are be performed on male person. It varies by age groups. They help detect and prevent health problem before they advance into serious health complications. The history of the man will be taken, them he will undergo a physical examination and finally some routine tests performed on him. The tests may include urinalysis, blood samples, stool samples, x-rays of some parts of the body etc.

Neurology 1 procedures

Migraine Treatment

This is a headache of that varies in intensity and is often accompanied by sound and light sensitivity and nausea. The condition can be managed by medications. The drugs can either be pain-relieving or preventive. Pain relieving medications included painkillers, triptans, ergots, anti-nausea drugs, opioids, and glucocorticoids. Preventative medications included cardiovascular drugs, antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, painkillers, and Botox.

Reproductive Medicine 2 procedures

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

This is an assisted reproductive technology that is used to achieve conception. It normally the only means available to achieve pregnancy when fallopian tubes are obstructed/blocked. In it, a woman egg and sperm will be left in a laboratory culture dish to fertilize after which the embryo is placed in the woman’s uterus. It is a complicated technology though useful for couples with infertility.

Artificial Insemination

This is an assisted reproductive technology where the male partner’s sperm or donor sperm is injected into the female uterus at around the time of ovulation so that the fertilization can take place to achieve pregnancy.

Nephrology 3 procedures

Kidney Transplant (Living Related Donor)

This is the transplant of a healthy kidney to patients with an end-stage renal disease or no functional kidneys. Kidneys are important because they remove wastes and toxins from the body apart from producing important hormones in the body. The kidney can be taken from a live donor or deceased donor. There recipient and donor can be genetically related or non-related depending on whether a biological relationship existed between them. India has very nice centers where this can be done successfully.

Nephrology Consultation

This is a hospital checkup and review by a qualified nephrologist. It involves patient assessment, treatment planning, diagnosis and interventions such as permanent catheter insertion. Patients with acute or chronic kidney disease will require a frequent check-up by a nephrologist. The doctor will also monitor patients undergoing dialysis.

Kidney Dialysis

This is a procedure done to manage patients with acute kidney injury or those with end-stage kidney disease. It is needed when one's kidneys are no longer able to meet the body’s needs. It performs normal kidney functions like the removal of wastes. There are two types of dialysis, i.e., peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

Dermatology 4 procedures

Acne Scar Treatment

The treatment is carried out under the supervision of a dermatologist. There are various agents available in the market that are used in the management of these scars. However, for good result, the agents should only be used after a dermatology consultation.

Acne Treatment

Acne is an inflammatory papular, pustular, and follicular eruptions involving the pilosebaceous units in the skin. It is treated medical using either local or topical agents by a dermatologist. All drugs used for the management of acne act as Anti-inflammatory, Anti-comedonal and Anti-microbial agents.

Dermatology Consultation

This is a visit to a skin specialist. The specialist will take your history and your skin lesions or just the general condition of the skin. The doctor will then prepare a treatment plan for you. A dermatological consult can be for cosmetic reasons or management of pathological skin conditions.

Mole Removal

Mole (birth mark) is a benign disorder of melanocytes. They occur when these cells grow in cluster instead of spreading throughout in the skin. They darken after sun exposure and pregnancy. They can be removed for medical or aesthetic reasons. There are there methods of removing moles i.e. a punch excision, surgical excisions of larger moles and a shave excision.

Laboratory Medicine 3 procedures

Blood Test Package

This is a collection of the basic blood tests that are done to provide the physician with information about the overall wellness of a patient. It includes a complete blood count, hemoglobin, hormonal assays, a comprehensive metabolic panel etc.

Blood Tests

These Are tests done on blood samples, i.e., blood work or panel. The blood is usually extracted from a vein in the upper limb using a figure prick or hypodermic needle. It tests for specific components of bold such as cholesterol, glucose tests

Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Testing

STI treatment require that a proper history of signs and symptoms taken, physical examination done and relevant investigations ordered. A proper treatment plan is then prepared depending on the findings.

Infectious Diseases 1 procedures

Hepatitis Consultation

This is a visit to a hospital for physician clinical review after exposure to a patient with hepatitis or a previous diagnosis of hepatitis. The visit is meant to monitor treatment and if a first visit is assessed and investigated for your treatment plan to be made. The consultation can also be for purposes of vaccination or medical education.

Vascular Medicine 2 procedures

Angiography

This is a medical imaging modality that is used to view the lumen or inside of organs and vessels in the body with a special interest in veins, arteries, and chambers of the heart. It helps reveal areas of blockage or areas with pathology. They include arteriogram, venograms, CT angiography, MR angiography. Examples microangiography, coronary angiography, etc.

Angioplasty

Sometimes referred to as percutaneous transluminal Angioplasty or balloon Angioplasty.it is a minimally y invasive procedure that is done to widen obstructed or narrowed veins and arteries typically to manage atherosclerosis. A balloon catheter is passed over a guided wire to the narrowed vessel which is then inflated. A stent is sometimes inserted during the ballooning phase to ensure that the vessel will remain open after the balloon is deflated and removed. It has several used, i.e., Coronary Angioplasty, carotid Angioplasty and Peripheral Angioplasty.

Specialists

Specialists working with The Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya

Marleen Temmerman Gynecology

  • ["Professor of Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyDirector Women’s Health, Faculty of Heath Sciences"]

Parmenas Oroko Orthopedics

  • Master of Medicine in Surgery University of Nairobi 1989 Full Time Faculty and Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon Aga Khan University in Nairobi 2011 - Present

Gerald Yonga Cardiology

  • Head of Population Health and Associate Professor of Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University in Nairobi,2014 to date.

Aideed Kahie Urology

  • Senior Instructor and Consultant Urologist, Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University in Nairobi, 2013 to date.

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