Apollo Hospitals Chennai Greams Road

for Breast Cancer Treatment

Breast Cancer Treatment

Treatment of breast cancer depends on the stage. The treatment may involve radiotherapy, surgery or medications. The types of surgeries used included mastectomy (radical mastectomy or simple mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, patery modified radical mastectomy), breast-conserving surgery, lumpectomy and lymph node dissection. Medical therapy involves chemotherapy for breast cancer or systemic hormonal therapy like tamoxifen.

Overview

The flagship hospital of the Apollo Group, Apollo Hospitals Greams Road, Chennai, was established in 1983. Undaunted and unfazed by the obstacles faced, Apollo Hospitals has ever since nurtured a goal which read as "Our mission is to bring healthcare of international standards within the reach of every individual. We are committed to the achievement and maintenance of excellence in education, research and healthcare for the benefit of humanity". In the years since, it has scripted one of the most magnificent stories of success that India has seen. Today it is one of the most respected hospitals in the world and is also amongst the most preferred destinations for patients from several parts of India, as well as for medical tourism and medical value travel. The hospital has created a name for itself in the healthcare sector through cutting-edge innovation in medical procedures and technological advancements. It has over 60 departments, spearheaded by internationally trained and skillful medical experts who are supported by dedicated patient care personnel. They have state-of-the-art facilities for various health ailments and disorders.

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Location

Centrally located off Greams Road in Chennai. Airport at a distance of 17Kms, duration 51Mins. Taxi available on call. Budget hotels, Guests houses are easily available within close proximities

Languages spoken

English, Arabic, Russian, Translators can be arranged for other Languages.

Services

Medical records transfer

Rehabilitation

Airport pickup

Hotel booking

Special offer for group stays

Free Wifi

Phone in the room

TV in the room

Special dietary requests accepted

Private rooms for patients available

Parking available

Pharmacy

Laundry

Mobility accessible rooms

Online doctor consultation

Medical travel insurance

Translation services

Interpreter services

Car hire

Local transportation booking

Flight booking

Local tourism options

Family accommodation

Visa / Travel office

Religious facilities

Nursery / Nanny services

Dry cleaning

Entertainment options

International newspapers

Business centre services

Fitness centre

Personal assistance / Concierge

Health insurance coordination

Restaurant

Procedures

Gastroenterology 44 procedures

Gallstones Treatment

Treatment of gallstones is based on one's symptoms and results of diagnostic procedures. The treatment options include cholecystectomy (surgery to remove the gallbladder) and drugs meant to dissolve the stones.

Liver Transplant (Living Related Donor)

This is the replacement of a diseased liver with a healthy one from a relative.it is recommended as a treatment for an end-stage liver disease or liver failure. The donor and recipient will have to undergo DNA analysis to ensure they are a close match before the procedure is done to minimize the risk of graft rejection.

Colostomy

This is a surgical procedure where a stoma is created by dragging a healthy end of the large bowel via an incision in the anterior wall of the abdomen then sutured into place. There are several techniques of colostomy, i.e., wind colostomy, loop colostomy and double barrel colostomy.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

This is a technique that combines the use of fluoroscopy and endoscopy to diagnose and treat pancreatic and biliary ductal systems conditions like bile stones.

Gastroscopy

This is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure. In the process, a flexible thin tube, i.e., an endoscope is inserted into the gullet, stomach, and the duodenum. The endoscope has a camera at its end. The most commonly used terms in hospitals to refer to the procedure are upper GI endoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD).

Gastroenterology Consultation

A gastroenterologist is a physician that has unique training and experience in the management of liver and gastrointestinal diseases. In a Gastroenterology Consultation, the doctor will examine the patient’s abdomen, possibly do an endoscopic procedure, order appropriate investigations on the patient’s and formulate or review the patient's treatment plan.

Gastrointestinal Perforation Repair

This is a procedure done to repair a hole in the gastrointestinal tract. It is performed during an exploratory laparotomy where the hole is looked for and the damaged area corrected.

Liver Transarterial Chemo Embolization (TACE)

This is a procedure done to manage liver cancer. Embolization is a procedure that slows or blocks the blood supply for an organ or tissue. In this case, it is used to block the blood supply to a live tumor so that that cancer cells can die. Chemoembolization is when the embolization material is used to deliver chemotherapy. Liver TACE, hepatic atrial blood supply to the tumor is blocked.

Liver Biopsy

This is biopsy taken form the liver. It is a medical procedure that is done to diagnose, assess severity or monitor response to treatment of liver diseases.

Esophageal Cancer Surgery

This is a procedure done to treat cancer of the esophagus. The diseased area is resected. It is commonly done to manage earl stage (stage 1 and 2) esophageal cancer. It can be combine with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Surgical options available included minimally invasive esophagectomy, open esophagectomy, and endoscopic mucosal resection.

Intra-Abdominal Adhesions Surgery

Adhesion are complications of radiation therapy, inflammatory processes and abdomino-pelvic surgeries. These adhesions can cause infertility, intestinal obstructions, chronic pelvic pain, and dyspareunia. These surgery is meat to manage these effects of adhesions so as to improve the patients overall quality of life.

Bile Duct Cancer Surgery

This is a procedure done to manage cancers of the distal and perihiler bile ducts. The surgery removes the bile duct and all the sentinel lymph nodes, along with sections of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and small bowel depending on the patient disease statue.

Choledochotomy

This is a surgical procedure done to in which the common bile duct is to looks for an remove bile stone within it. It can be done as a laparoscopic operation or an open procedure.

Capsule Endoscopy

Capsule endoscopy is a procedure that uses a tiny wireless camera to take pictures of your digestive tract. A capsule endoscopy camera sits inside a vitamin-size capsule you swallow. As the capsule travels through your digestive tract, the camera takes thousands of pictures that are transmitted to a recorder you wear on a belt around your waist. Capsule endoscopy helps doctors see inside your small intestine — an area that isn't easily reached with more-traditional endoscopy procedures. Traditional endoscopy involves passing a long, flexible tube equipped with a video camera down your throat or through your rectum.

Cystogastroctomy

Cystogastrostomy is a surgery to create an opening between a pancreatic pseudocyst and the stomach when the cyst is in a suitable position to be drained into the stomach. This conserves pancreatic juices that would otherwise be lost. This surgery is performed by a GI surgeon to avoid a life-threatening rupture of the pancreatic pseudocyst.

Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced surgical procedure using endoscopy to remove gastrointestinal tumors that have not entered the muscle layer. ESD may be done in the esophagus, stomach or colon. Application of endoscopic resection (ER) to gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms is limited to lesions with no risk of nodal metastasis. Either polypectomy or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is beneficial for patients because of its low level of invasiveness. However, to ensure the curative potential of these treatment modalities, accurate histopathologic assessment of the resected specimens is essential because the depth of invasion and lymphovascular infiltration of the tumor is associated with considerable risk for lymph node metastasis. For accurate assessment of the appropriateness of the therapy, en bloc resection is more desirable than piecemeal resection. For a reliable en bloc resection of GI neoplasms, a new method of ER called endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been developed.

Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (EUS-FNA)

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) is currently performed on a routine basis at many endoscopic centers and it is evident that this procedure has a major impact on the therapeutic management of patients by obtaining a definite tissue diagnosis from lesions outlined by endosonography.

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) Placement

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a method of placing a tube into the stomach percutaneously, aided by endoscopy.

Esophageal Manometry

Esophageal manometry is a test to measure how well the esophagus is working. During esophageal manometry, a thin, pressure-sensitive tube is passed through your nose, down the esophagus, and into your stomach. Before the procedure, you receive numbing medicine inside the nose. This helps make the insertion of the tube less uncomfortable. After the tube is in the stomach, the tube is pulled slowly back into your esophagus. At this time, you are asked to swallow. The pressure of the muscle contractions is measured along several sections of the tube. While the tube is in place, other studies of your esophagus may be done. The tube is removed after the tests are completed. The test takes about 1 hour.

Biofeedback

During a biofeedback session, electrodes are attached to your skin. Finger sensors can also be used. These electrodes/sensors send signals to a monitor, which displays a sound, flash of light, or image that represents your heart and breathing rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, sweating, or muscle activity. When you're under stress, these functions change. Your heart rate speeds up, your muscles tighten, your blood pressure rises, you start to sweat, and your breathing quickens. You can see these stress responses as they happen on the monitor, and then get immediate feedback as you try to stop them. Biofeedback sessions are typically done in a therapist's office, but there are computer programs that connect the biofeedback sensor to your own computer. A biofeedback therapist helps you practice relaxation exercises, which you fine-tune to control different body functions. For example, you might use a relaxation technique to turn down the brainwaves that activate when you have a headache

Cholecystectomy

This is a surgical procedure used to remove the gallbladder i.e., pear- shaped organ below the right lobe of the liver where bile is stored. The gallbladder can be removed due to inflammation (cholecystitis), gallstones if it leads to pancreatitis, gallbladder cancer, and biliary colic. The procedure can either be open or laparoscopic. Laparoscopic surgery is minimally invasive and only performed by a laparoscopic surgeon. Currently, advanced laparoscopic surgeries use single incisions, a technique called single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) or laparoendoscopic single site surgery.

Colonoscopy

This is an endoscopic procedure used to examine the colon (large intestine) and the Ileum (the distal sections of the small intestine) using a fiber optic camera or a CCD camera on a flexible tube that is passed via the anus. It helps in the diagnosis of ulcers (e.g., ulcerative colitis, Cohn’s disease), polyps (e.g., HNPCC) and removal or biopsy of suspected lesions of colorectal cancer. It is also used in screening for colorectal cancer. Currently, virtual colonoscopy which is virtually noninvasive is available and uses CT scans or MRI sand to reconstruct its images.

Endoscopy

It is a nonsurgical procedure done to examine a person’s gastrointestinal tract. A patient may be anesthetized or fully conscious during the process. It is used in the investigation of gastrointestinal symptoms, confirmation of diagnosis and for treatment purposes, e.g., widening and esophageal stricture. The most commonly performed endoscopic procedure is esophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD). Endoscopy is also used to examine the respiratory tract (rhinoscopy or bronchoscopy), the ear (otoscope), the urinary tract (cystoscopy) and female reproductive tract (gynoscopy). The technology is also available for use in pregnancy, plastic surgery, orthopedic surgery, endodontic surgeries, endoscopic spinal procedure and endoscopic endonasal surgeries.

Gallstones Treatment

Treatment of gallstones is based on one's symptoms and results of diagnostic procedures. The treatment options include cholecystectomy (surgery to remove the gallbladder) and drugs meant to dissolve the stones.

Liver Transplant (Living Related Donor)

This is the replacement of a diseased liver with a healthy one from a relative.it is recommended as a treatment for an end-stage liver disease or liver failure. The donor and recipient will have to undergo DNA analysis to ensure they are a close match before the procedure is done to minimize the risk of graft rejection.

Colostomy

This is a surgical procedure where a stoma is created by dragging a healthy end of the large bowel via an incision in the anterior wall of the abdomen then sutured into place. There are several techniques of colostomy, i.e., wind colostomy, loop colostomy and double barrel colostomy.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

This is a technique that combines the use of fluoroscopy and endoscopy to diagnose and treat pancreatic and biliary ductal systems conditions like bile stones.

Gastroscopy

This is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure. In the process, a flexible thin tube, i.e., an endoscope is inserted into the gullet, stomach, and the duodenum. The endoscope has a camera at its end. The most commonly used terms in hospitals to refer to the procedure are upper GI endoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD).

Gastroenterology Consultation

A gastroenterologist is a physician that has unique training and experience in the management of liver and gastrointestinal diseases. In a Gastroenterology Consultation, the doctor will examine the patient’s abdomen, possibly do an endoscopic procedure, order appropriate investigations on the patient’s and formulate or review the patient's treatment plan.

Gastrointestinal Perforation Repair

This is a procedure done to repair a hole in the gastrointestinal tract. It is performed during an exploratory laparotomy where the hole is looked for and the damaged area corrected.

Liver Transarterial Chemo Embolization (TACE)

This is a procedure done to manage liver cancer. Embolization is a procedure that slows or blocks the blood supply for an organ or tissue. In this case, it is used to block the blood supply to a live tumor so that that cancer cells can die. Chemoembolization is when the embolization material is used to deliver chemotherapy. Liver TACE, hepatic atrial blood supply to the tumor is blocked.

Liver Biopsy

This is biopsy taken form the liver. It is a medical procedure that is done to diagnose, assess severity or monitor response to treatment of liver diseases.

Esophageal Cancer Surgery

This is a procedure done to treat cancer of the esophagus. The diseased area is resected. It is commonly done to manage earl stage (stage 1 and 2) esophageal cancer. It can be combine with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Surgical options available included minimally invasive esophagectomy, open esophagectomy, and endoscopic mucosal resection.

Intra-Abdominal Adhesions Surgery

Adhesion are complications of radiation therapy, inflammatory processes and abdomino-pelvic surgeries. These adhesions can cause infertility, intestinal obstructions, chronic pelvic pain, and dyspareunia. These surgery is meat to manage these effects of adhesions so as to improve the patients overall quality of life.

Bile Duct Cancer Surgery

This is a procedure done to manage cancers of the distal and perihiler bile ducts. The surgery removes the bile duct and all the sentinel lymph nodes, along with sections of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and small bowel depending on the patient disease statue.

Choledochotomy

This is a surgical procedure done to in which the common bile duct is to looks for an remove bile stone within it. It can be done as a laparoscopic operation or an open procedure.

Capsule Endoscopy

Capsule endoscopy is a procedure that uses a tiny wireless camera to take pictures of your digestive tract. A capsule endoscopy camera sits inside a vitamin-size capsule you swallow. As the capsule travels through your digestive tract, the camera takes thousands of pictures that are transmitted to a recorder you wear on a belt around your waist. Capsule endoscopy helps doctors see inside your small intestine — an area that isn't easily reached with more-traditional endoscopy procedures. Traditional endoscopy involves passing a long, flexible tube equipped with a video camera down your throat or through your rectum.

Cystogastroctomy

Cystogastrostomy is a surgery to create an opening between a pancreatic pseudocyst and the stomach when the cyst is in a suitable position to be drained into the stomach. This conserves pancreatic juices that would otherwise be lost. This surgery is performed by a GI surgeon to avoid a life-threatening rupture of the pancreatic pseudocyst.

Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced surgical procedure using endoscopy to remove gastrointestinal tumors that have not entered the muscle layer. ESD may be done in the esophagus, stomach or colon. Application of endoscopic resection (ER) to gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms is limited to lesions with no risk of nodal metastasis. Either polypectomy or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is beneficial for patients because of its low level of invasiveness. However, to ensure the curative potential of these treatment modalities, accurate histopathologic assessment of the resected specimens is essential because the depth of invasion and lymphovascular infiltration of the tumor is associated with considerable risk for lymph node metastasis. For accurate assessment of the appropriateness of the therapy, en bloc resection is more desirable than piecemeal resection. For a reliable en bloc resection of GI neoplasms, a new method of ER called endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been developed.

Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (EUS-FNA)

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) is currently performed on a routine basis at many endoscopic centers and it is evident that this procedure has a major impact on the therapeutic management of patients by obtaining a definite tissue diagnosis from lesions outlined by endosonography.

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) Placement

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a method of placing a tube into the stomach percutaneously, aided by endoscopy.

Esophageal Manometry

Esophageal manometry is a test to measure how well the esophagus is working. During esophageal manometry, a thin, pressure-sensitive tube is passed through your nose, down the esophagus, and into your stomach. Before the procedure, you receive numbing medicine inside the nose. This helps make the insertion of the tube less uncomfortable. After the tube is in the stomach, the tube is pulled slowly back into your esophagus. At this time, you are asked to swallow. The pressure of the muscle contractions is measured along several sections of the tube. While the tube is in place, other studies of your esophagus may be done. The tube is removed after the tests are completed. The test takes about 1 hour.

Biofeedback

During a biofeedback session, electrodes are attached to your skin. Finger sensors can also be used. These electrodes/sensors send signals to a monitor, which displays a sound, flash of light, or image that represents your heart and breathing rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, sweating, or muscle activity. When you're under stress, these functions change. Your heart rate speeds up, your muscles tighten, your blood pressure rises, you start to sweat, and your breathing quickens. You can see these stress responses as they happen on the monitor, and then get immediate feedback as you try to stop them. Biofeedback sessions are typically done in a therapist's office, but there are computer programs that connect the biofeedback sensor to your own computer. A biofeedback therapist helps you practice relaxation exercises, which you fine-tune to control different body functions. For example, you might use a relaxation technique to turn down the brainwaves that activate when you have a headache

Liver Transplant (ABO Incompatible transplant)

This is the replacement of a diseased liver with a healthy one from a relative.it is recommended as a treatment for an end-stage liver disease or liver failure. ABO-incompatible (ABOi) transplantation is a method of allocation in organ transplantation that permits more efficient use of available organs regardless of ABO blood type

General Surgery 26 procedures

Bone Marrow Transplant (Autologous)

This is a surgical procedure which involves a process where unhealthy bone marrow tissue is replaced with a healthy one. In an autologous transplant, your own blood-forming stem cells are collected. You are then treated with high doses of chemotherapy. The high-dose treatment kills the cancer cells, but it also gets rid of the blood-producing cells that are left in your bone marrow.

Hernia Repair

A hernia is an abnormal protrusion in whole or part, through an OPENING, pathological or anatomically in the walls of its containing cavity, e.g., the abdominal cavity. Hernia Repair procedures involve returning this displaced tissue to their proper place. There are different types of Hernia Repair surgeries, i.e., Herniorrhaphy (tissue repair) and hernioplasty (mesh repair) where a mesh is usually sewn over weakened areas.

Mastectomy

This is the surgical removal either wholly or partially one or both breasts. It is carried out to treat breast cancer. It can be carried out prophylactically in case a patient has a high risk of breast malignancy. There are five types of mastectomies being practiced today, i.e., radical mastectomy, subcutaneous (nipple- sparing) mastectomy, partial mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy and “total” or “simple” mastectomy.

Adrenalectomy

This is the surgical excision of one or both the suprarenal glands. It can be performed as laparoscopic or as an open procedure. It is commonly performed on patients with adrenal cancers.

Appendectomy

This is the surgical removal of the appendix. It is performed after a patient suffering from acute appendicitis. It can be performed as laparoscopic or as an open procedure.

Hiatal Hernia Surgery

This is a surgery done to correct a hiatal hernia. Hiatal Hernia is the abnormal protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm.

Diagnostic Laparoscopy

This is a procedure done by a gynecologist to view a woman’s reproductive organs using a laparoscope. A laparoscope is a thin tube that is normally passed through a small cut in the abdomen. It helps the doctor to directly see the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus and nearby organs. It can be issued to localize the source of pain, examine body tissues, confirm PID or endometriosis and look for fallopian tube blockage.

Breast Abscess Drainage

This is a minor surgical procedure done to remove pus from female breast abscesses. An incision is made to create an opening through which the abscess is drained. After this, the area left is packed with iodine-soaked gauze, and the patient is given drugs to take and given an appointment to return for a checkup. A recent advance in the procedure is the introduction of percutaneous aspiration under ultrasound guidance.

Breast Lumpectomy

This is a procedure done to remove a breast tumor. The tumor and a portion of its surrounding (usually a margin of about 2 cm). It is a form of breast-conserving surgery or breast preservation procedure. It is technically a partial mastectomy procedure.

Liver Resection

This is the surgical removal of a part of the liver. It is a procedure done to manage some types of liver malignancies and metastatic colorectal cancer. The liver tumor must be located in the area under resection.

Umbilical Hernia Repair

An umbilical hernia is a pouch or bulge the forma in the anterior abdominal wall. It arises when part of the intestine push through a weak area in the anterior wall near the umbilicus. The operation aims to fix the hernia. It is done when the hernia gets largest than one inch or is causing a disfigurement or is accompanied by pain.

Nephrectomy (removal of kidney)

This is the surgical removal of a kidney. It is done to manage kidney malignancies as well as other kidney injuries and diseases. It can also be done to remove a healthy kidney for purposes of transplantation from donor.

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

In a sleeve gastrectomy, also known as a vertical sleeve gastrectomy or gastric sleeve procedure, the outer margin of the stomach is removed to restrict food intake, leaving a sleeve of stomach, roughly the size and shape of a banana, and the pylorus, the muscle that controls emptying of food from the stomach into the intestine. A sleeve gastrectomy is a purely restrictive procedure. Sleeve gastrectomy - posselt slides. The sleeve gastrectomy, by reducing the size of the stomach, allows the patient to feel full after eating less and taking in fewer calories. The surgery removes that portion of the stomach that produces a hormone that can makes a patient feel hungry. Sleeve gastrectomy is a simpler operation than the gastric bypass procedure because it does not involve rerouting of or re-connection of the intestines. The sleeve gastrectomy, unlike the Lap-band, does not require the use of a banding device to be implanted around a portion of the stomach.

Bone Marrow Transplant (Autologous)

This is a surgical procedure which involves a process where unhealthy bone marrow tissue is replaced with a healthy one. In an autologous transplant, your own blood-forming stem cells are collected. You are then treated with high doses of chemotherapy. The high-dose treatment kills the cancer cells, but it also gets rid of the blood-producing cells that are left in your bone marrow.

Hernia Repair

A hernia is an abnormal protrusion in whole or part, through an OPENING, pathological or anatomically in the walls of its containing cavity, e.g., the abdominal cavity. Hernia Repair procedures involve returning this displaced tissue to their proper place. There are different types of Hernia Repair surgeries, i.e., Herniorrhaphy (tissue repair) and hernioplasty (mesh repair) where a mesh is usually sewn over weakened areas.

Mastectomy

This is the surgical removal either wholly or partially one or both breasts. It is carried out to treat breast cancer. It can be carried out prophylactically in case a patient has a high risk of breast malignancy. There are five types of mastectomies being practiced today, i.e., radical mastectomy, subcutaneous (nipple- sparing) mastectomy, partial mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy and “total” or “simple” mastectomy.

Adrenalectomy

This is the surgical excision of one or both the suprarenal glands. It can be performed as laparoscopic or as an open procedure. It is commonly performed on patients with adrenal cancers.

Appendectomy

This is the surgical removal of the appendix. It is performed after a patient suffering from acute appendicitis. It can be performed as laparoscopic or as an open procedure.

Hiatal Hernia Surgery

This is a surgery done to correct a hiatal hernia. Hiatal Hernia is the abnormal protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm.

Diagnostic Laparoscopy

This is a procedure done by a gynecologist to view a woman’s reproductive organs using a laparoscope. A laparoscope is a thin tube that is normally passed through a small cut in the abdomen. It helps the doctor to directly see the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus and nearby organs. It can be issued to localize the source of pain, examine body tissues, confirm PID or endometriosis and look for fallopian tube blockage.

Breast Abscess Drainage

This is a minor surgical procedure done to remove pus from female breast abscesses. An incision is made to create an opening through which the abscess is drained. After this, the area left is packed with iodine-soaked gauze, and the patient is given drugs to take and given an appointment to return for a checkup. A recent advance in the procedure is the introduction of percutaneous aspiration under ultrasound guidance.

Breast Lumpectomy

This is a procedure done to remove a breast tumor. The tumor and a portion of its surrounding (usually a margin of about 2 cm). It is a form of breast-conserving surgery or breast preservation procedure. It is technically a partial mastectomy procedure.

Liver Resection

This is the surgical removal of a part of the liver. It is a procedure done to manage some types of liver malignancies and metastatic colorectal cancer. The liver tumor must be located in the area under resection.

Umbilical Hernia Repair

An umbilical hernia is a pouch or bulge the forma in the anterior abdominal wall. It arises when part of the intestine push through a weak area in the anterior wall near the umbilicus. The operation aims to fix the hernia. It is done when the hernia gets largest than one inch or is causing a disfigurement or is accompanied by pain.

Nephrectomy (removal of kidney)

This is the surgical removal of a kidney. It is done to manage kidney malignancies as well as other kidney injuries and diseases. It can also be done to remove a healthy kidney for purposes of transplantation from donor.

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

In a sleeve gastrectomy, also known as a vertical sleeve gastrectomy or gastric sleeve procedure, the outer margin of the stomach is removed to restrict food intake, leaving a sleeve of stomach, roughly the size and shape of a banana, and the pylorus, the muscle that controls emptying of food from the stomach into the intestine. A sleeve gastrectomy is a purely restrictive procedure. Sleeve gastrectomy - posselt slides. The sleeve gastrectomy, by reducing the size of the stomach, allows the patient to feel full after eating less and taking in fewer calories. The surgery removes that portion of the stomach that produces a hormone that can makes a patient feel hungry. Sleeve gastrectomy is a simpler operation than the gastric bypass procedure because it does not involve rerouting of or re-connection of the intestines. The sleeve gastrectomy, unlike the Lap-band, does not require the use of a banding device to be implanted around a portion of the stomach.

Dentistry 18 procedures

Apicoectomy

This is an endodontic procedure that is done using a microscope hence also referred to as endodontic microsurgery. It is commonly done after a previous root canal procedure which has become infected and the second root retreatment unsuccessful or impossible. In an apicoectomy, the teeth root tip is removed, and then a root end cavity is prepared before being filled with a material that is biocompatible.

Bone Graft

It is also known as bone transplanting. This is a surgical procedure used to replace a missing bone to repair bone fractures that are complex, fail to heal in right way or pose a substantial health risk to the patient. It is that is used to repair problems with joints or bone, especially from trauma. It is also useful in ensuring that bone grows around an implanted device properly.

Dental Crown

Is a procedure used to install a dental crown after damage. Normally, it requires at least two visits to a dentist. In the first visit, dentist examines the teeth to ensure it can support the crown then starts filling the crown to ensure it can support the crown. The dentist then takes an impression of the teeth and send to the dental lab so that permanent crown is made. In the second visit, the permanent crown is installed. Several types of crowns are available, i.e., porcelain, ceramic, stainless steel, resin, and gold. The procedure can be undertaken for cosmetic reasons or repair damaged the tooth.

Dental Bridge

It is a procedure done by a dentist. A bridge is a fixed dental prosthesis used to replace a missing tooth by permanently joining an artificial tooth with an adjacent dental implant or teeth. There are four type of dental bridges, i.e., cantilever bridge, Maryland Bridge, traditional bridge and implant supported bridges.

Dental Checkup

This is a visit to a dentist. The dentist will carry out an inspection of the teeth and surrounding soft tissue to identify problems one may not be feeling or seeing. People with low risk for dental diseases need to visit a dentist at least once a year while high-risk individuals need 3 to 4 visits a year.

Braces

These are orthodontic devices used to straighten and align teeth and possibly position them with regards to a person’s natural bite. It helps improve a person’s cosmetic appearance and general health.

Dental Implant

These are surgical components that are used in dental procedures to create an interface between the jawbone or the skull to support dental prostheses like bridges, facial prostheses, denture, crown or to act just as an orthodontic anchor.

All-on-4

This is a technique that is used to rehabilitate an edentulous patient or a patient whose teeth are badly broken down, decayed or compromised due to gum disease. It is a prosthodontics surgical technique in which all the teeth will get supported on four dental implants. The four implant support a prosthesis with fixed 10-14 teeth that place immediately after surgery. All-on-four implant has the following benefits, i.e., shorter installation time, prevent future bone loss, and ensure the arch is restored fully.

Cosmetic Dentistry Consultation

A cosmetic dentist is a dental practitioner that will help you change your appearance by changing your smile, gum, bite, and teeth. The consultation focuses on improving one's appearance regarding position, size, color, shape, and smile. The consultation helps you get a professional opinion before you make any final decisions.

Apicoectomy

This is an endodontic procedure that is done using a microscope hence also referred to as endodontic microsurgery. It is commonly done after a previous root canal procedure which has become infected and the second root retreatment unsuccessful or impossible. In an apicoectomy, the teeth root tip is removed, and then a root end cavity is prepared before being filled with a material that is biocompatible.

Bone Graft

It is also known as bone transplanting. This is a surgical procedure used to replace a missing bone to repair bone fractures that are complex, fail to heal in right way or pose a substantial health risk to the patient. It is that is used to repair problems with joints or bone, especially from trauma. It is also useful in ensuring that bone grows around an implanted device properly.

Dental Crown

Is a procedure used to install a dental crown after damage. Normally, it requires at least two visits to a dentist. In the first visit, dentist examines the teeth to ensure it can support the crown then starts filling the crown to ensure it can support the crown. The dentist then takes an impression of the teeth and send to the dental lab so that permanent crown is made. In the second visit, the permanent crown is installed. Several types of crowns are available, i.e., porcelain, ceramic, stainless steel, resin, and gold. The procedure can be undertaken for cosmetic reasons or repair damaged the tooth.

Dental Bridge

It is a procedure done by a dentist. A bridge is a fixed dental prosthesis used to replace a missing tooth by permanently joining an artificial tooth with an adjacent dental implant or teeth. There are four type of dental bridges, i.e., cantilever bridge, Maryland Bridge, traditional bridge and implant supported bridges.

Dental Checkup

This is a visit to a dentist. The dentist will carry out an inspection of the teeth and surrounding soft tissue to identify problems one may not be feeling or seeing. People with low risk for dental diseases need to visit a dentist at least once a year while high-risk individuals need 3 to 4 visits a year.

Braces

These are orthodontic devices used to straighten and align teeth and possibly position them with regards to a person’s natural bite. It helps improve a person’s cosmetic appearance and general health.

Dental Implant

These are surgical components that are used in dental procedures to create an interface between the jawbone or the skull to support dental prostheses like bridges, facial prostheses, denture, crown or to act just as an orthodontic anchor.

All-on-4

This is a technique that is used to rehabilitate an edentulous patient or a patient whose teeth are badly broken down, decayed or compromised due to gum disease. It is a prosthodontics surgical technique in which all the teeth will get supported on four dental implants. The four implant support a prosthesis with fixed 10-14 teeth that place immediately after surgery. All-on-four implant has the following benefits, i.e., shorter installation time, prevent future bone loss, and ensure the arch is restored fully.

Cosmetic Dentistry Consultation

A cosmetic dentist is a dental practitioner that will help you change your appearance by changing your smile, gum, bite, and teeth. The consultation focuses on improving one's appearance regarding position, size, color, shape, and smile. The consultation helps you get a professional opinion before you make any final decisions.

Bariatric Surgery 8 procedures

Bariatric Surgery Consultation

This is a weight loss procedure. Currently, most are performed laparoscopically. These include sleeve gastrostomy, adjustable gastric band, gastric bypass and Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch. This consultation will provide you with details about this procedure and go on to offer details of procedure relevant to thee. We will endeavor to explain to you how the procedures work and how it will help you achieve your desired weight.

Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS)

Its a procedure similar to a gastric bypass. It involves creating a small stomach pouch then rerouting the intestines. The procedure has several advantages and some disadvantages. In this procedure, surgeons create a small stomach and rest of stomach removed. The small bowel is then divided into two parts. The end of the small bowel is connected to the stomach so that food passes directly from the small stomach to it and the bypassed piece that contains bile and important digestive enzymes connected to last part of the ileum. Food and the enzymes will meet in this area where digestion takes place. The patients thus digest efficiently and eat less food. This leads to weight loss and correction of metabolic syndrome.

Gastric Band Surgery

This is a weight loss surgery. In it, the surgeon places a band around the upper part of one's stomach hence creating a small pouch to hold food. The band will help limit the quantity of food one can take by making one feel early satiety after consuming small food. The procedure is currently performed laparoscopically.

Gastric Balloon Treatment

This is weight loss treatment modality where a deflated balloon is inserted endoscopically inside one's stomach via the esophagus then filled with a sterile saline solution. It causes a person to feel full faster hence eats less food.

Bariatric Surgery Consultation

This is a weight loss procedure. Currently, most are performed laparoscopically. These include sleeve gastrostomy, adjustable gastric band, gastric bypass and Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch. This consultation will provide you with details about this procedure and go on to offer details of procedure relevant to thee. We will endeavor to explain to you how the procedures work and how it will help you achieve your desired weight.

Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS)

Its a procedure similar to a gastric bypass. It involves creating a small stomach pouch then rerouting the intestines. The procedure has several advantages and some disadvantages. In this procedure, surgeons create a small stomach and rest of stomach removed. The small bowel is then divided into two parts. The end of the small bowel is connected to the stomach so that food passes directly from the small stomach to it and the bypassed piece that contains bile and important digestive enzymes connected to last part of the ileum. Food and the enzymes will meet in this area where digestion takes place. The patients thus digest efficiently and eat less food. This leads to weight loss and correction of metabolic syndrome.

Gastric Band Surgery

This is a weight loss surgery. In it, the surgeon places a band around the upper part of one's stomach hence creating a small pouch to hold food. The band will help limit the quantity of food one can take by making one feel early satiety after consuming small food. The procedure is currently performed laparoscopically.

Gastric Balloon Treatment

This is weight loss treatment modality where a deflated balloon is inserted endoscopically inside one's stomach via the esophagus then filled with a sterile saline solution. It causes a person to feel full faster hence eats less food.

Cardiology 27 procedures

Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Closure

An ASD is a congenital heart defect in the atrial septum that results in leakage oxygen-rich blood from left atrium to the right atrium. This increases the work of workload of the right side of the heart and if not corrected early can lead to heart failure. The defect if small can be corrected by cardiac catheterization usually by a pediatric cardiologist. A large defect often needs open heart procedures.

Cardiac Assessment

This is the systematic examination of a patient’s cardiovascular system with the aim of diagnosing cardiovascular problems. The assessment encompasses taking a comprehensive history of a patient, carrying out a thorough physical examination of a patient and finally doing investigations such as electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, central venous pressure, etc.

Coronary Angiogram

It is a type of cardiac catheterization procedure. It is performed for both interventional and diagnostic purposes. In this procedure, a dye that is radiopaque is injected into the blood vessels of one’s heart. An X-ray machine is then used to take serial images (angiograms) that give a picture of how the blood vessels are. Based on the finding, an interventional cardiologist will open the clogged vessels (angioplasty).

Coronary Angioplasty

Also known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) Thais is a procedure that is used to widen narrowed or blocked coronary arteries. The procedure is carried out by an interventional cardiologist. When combined with stenting, it is referred to as percutaneous coronary intervention. Is should be done within thirty minutes to 2 hours after a having a cardiac event.

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery

Also referred to as colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery or coronary artery bypass surgery. It is an operation done restore normal blood flow to obstructed coronary vessels hence used to manage coronary heart disease. The surgery has two main approaches, i.e., diversion of the internal thoracic artery to the left anterior descending artery in the left coronary vessel and using the great saphenous vein to create a connection between the aorta or its branch to the obstructed artery distance to the obstruction.

Cardiology Consultation

This is a hospital checkup and review by a qualified cardiologist. It involves patient assessment, treatment planning, diagnosis and cardiac interventions.

Bentall Procedure

This is a cardiothoracic operation that involves the replacement of a composite graft of the aortic root, ascending aorta and the aortic valve with implantation of coronary arteries into the graft.

Cardiac CT

This is a painless imaging modality that uses x-rays to take detailed images of one’s heart and its blood vessels. It may or may not be done with intravenous contrast agents. The modern multidetector CT (MDCT) is highly sensitive.

Atrioventricular Fistula Treatment

This is a procedure used to correct abnormal connections between the atria and ventricles of one's heart. The surgery requires the deformity be repaired to ensure that the correct flow of blood in one’s heart is achieved.

Aortic Valve Repair

This is a procedure done to repair or replace aortic valves damaged by disease. Aortic valves are one of the four heart valves that help regulate the flow of blood in the heart. The surgeon will remove the damaged valves and replace them with a prosthetic one which is then screwed into place. The valves can be mechanical (made of artificial materials like carbon) or biological, i.e., from animal or human tissue.

Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD) Treatment

Atrioventricular Septal Defect is a congenital malformation of the heart that allows the mixing of blood from the right and left sides of the heart. It can be due to the absence of the persistence of fetal interatrial foramen or the complete absence of part or whole of the septum. The management of the condition is surgical.

Aortopulmonary Window Repair

Aortopulmonary Window is a rare defect of the heart in which there is a hole connecting the aorta and the pulmonary artery abs a result failure of the conotructal ridges to fuse. As spontaneous closure does not occur, once a diagnosis is made, Aortopulmonary Window Repair surgery is the only solution.

24 Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring

This allows a patient’s blood pressure to be measured at regular intervals (20-30 minutes) over a 24 hour period, whether the patient is asleep or awake. The BP will be measure as one goes about the activities of his daily life. It helps to detect masked hypertension, sustained hypertension and white coat hypertensions. It is also good in situations like BP change due to medication, pregnancy related hypertension, borderline hypertension, fainting episodes and when it is difficult to control BP with drugs.

Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Closure

An ASD is a congenital heart defect in the atrial septum that results in leakage oxygen-rich blood from left atrium to the right atrium. This increases the work of workload of the right side of the heart and if not corrected early can lead to heart failure. The defect if small can be corrected by cardiac catheterization usually by a pediatric cardiologist. A large defect often needs open heart procedures.

Cardiac Assessment

This is the systematic examination of a patient’s cardiovascular system with the aim of diagnosing cardiovascular problems. The assessment encompasses taking a comprehensive history of a patient, carrying out a thorough physical examination of a patient and finally doing investigations such as electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, central venous pressure, etc.

Coronary Angiogram

It is a type of cardiac catheterization procedure. It is performed for both interventional and diagnostic purposes. In this procedure, a dye that is radiopaque is injected into the blood vessels of one’s heart. An X-ray machine is then used to take serial images (angiograms) that give a picture of how the blood vessels are. Based on the finding, an interventional cardiologist will open the clogged vessels (angioplasty).

Coronary Angioplasty

Also known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) Thais is a procedure that is used to widen narrowed or blocked coronary arteries. The procedure is carried out by an interventional cardiologist. When combined with stenting, it is referred to as percutaneous coronary intervention. Is should be done within thirty minutes to 2 hours after a having a cardiac event.

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery

Also referred to as colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery or coronary artery bypass surgery. It is an operation done restore normal blood flow to obstructed coronary vessels hence used to manage coronary heart disease. The surgery has two main approaches, i.e., diversion of the internal thoracic artery to the left anterior descending artery in the left coronary vessel and using the great saphenous vein to create a connection between the aorta or its branch to the obstructed artery distance to the obstruction.

Cardiology Consultation

This is a hospital checkup and review by a qualified cardiologist. It involves patient assessment, treatment planning, diagnosis and cardiac interventions.

Bentall Procedure

This is a cardiothoracic operation that involves the replacement of a composite graft of the aortic root, ascending aorta and the aortic valve with implantation of coronary arteries into the graft.

Cardiac CT

This is a painless imaging modality that uses x-rays to take detailed images of one’s heart and its blood vessels. It may or may not be done with intravenous contrast agents. The modern multidetector CT (MDCT) is highly sensitive.

Atrioventricular Fistula Treatment

This is a procedure used to correct abnormal connections between the atria and ventricles of one's heart. The surgery requires the deformity be repaired to ensure that the correct flow of blood in one’s heart is achieved.

Aortic Valve Repair

This is a procedure done to repair or replace aortic valves damaged by disease. Aortic valves are one of the four heart valves that help regulate the flow of blood in the heart. The surgeon will remove the damaged valves and replace them with a prosthetic one which is then screwed into place. The valves can be mechanical (made of artificial materials like carbon) or biological, i.e., from animal or human tissue.

Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD) Treatment

Atrioventricular Septal Defect is a congenital malformation of the heart that allows the mixing of blood from the right and left sides of the heart. It can be due to the absence of the persistence of fetal interatrial foramen or the complete absence of part or whole of the septum. The management of the condition is surgical.

Aortopulmonary Window Repair

Aortopulmonary Window is a rare defect of the heart in which there is a hole connecting the aorta and the pulmonary artery abs a result failure of the conotructal ridges to fuse. As spontaneous closure does not occur, once a diagnosis is made, Aortopulmonary Window Repair surgery is the only solution.

24 Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring

This allows a patient’s blood pressure to be measured at regular intervals (20-30 minutes) over a 24 hour period, whether the patient is asleep or awake. The BP will be measure as one goes about the activities of his daily life. It helps to detect masked hypertension, sustained hypertension and white coat hypertensions. It is also good in situations like BP change due to medication, pregnancy related hypertension, borderline hypertension, fainting episodes and when it is difficult to control BP with drugs.

Heart Transplant

Heart Transplant surgery is done to replace a damaged heart with a healthy, working heart that is taken from an ‘organ donor’ who has recently died. However, in very rare cases, the diseased heart is kept in its place to support the donated heart, instead of being removed. Heart transplant is used as a last resort when all the other cardiac treatments fail to improve the health of the patient.

Ophthalmology 10 procedures

Cataract Surgery

This is a procedure where the lens in one’s eye that has become cloudy (cataract) is removed and replaced with an artificial Len (called IOL or intraocular Len). Cataract is a condition that leads to loss of vision by clouding of one’s natural eye Len that lies behind the pupil and iris. It is performed by an ophthalmologist.

Detached Retina Treatment

The retinal detachment is an emergency condition where the pulls from the bold vessel that supply it with nutrients and oxygen. It’s accompanied by floaters (cobwebs or specks) and flashes in one's vision. If not fixed leads to blindness. The condition can be managed via various treatment modalities by an ophthalmologist. The notable procedures include vitrectomy, pneumatic retinopexy and scleral buckle procedure.

Eyelid Surgery

It is also known as blepharoplasty. It’s a surgical procedure meant to improve the appearance of one's eyelids. It can be performed on the lower lid, upper lids or both. It’s performed by plastic surgeons and helps correct deformities, disfigurations, and defects of the eyelids. It’s used to treat sagging or loose skin that creates a fold and disturb natural contour of the eye, remove fatty deposits that make ones eye puffy, remove bags below the eye, correct drooping lower lid and remove fine wrinkles and excess skins in lower lids.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Treatment

Currently, there is no specific treatment for dry AMD, but the patient can slow their condition by taking minerals and vitamins daily. There are however the wet AMD can be managed with Anti-VEGF drugs which helps decrease the number of abnormal vessels in one’s eye. Laser surgery can also be used to manage it.

Cornea Transplant

This is corneal grafting. It is a surgical procedure where a person’s diseased or damaged cornea is replaced by a corneal tissue that is donated.

Artificial Iris Implantation

During this procedure, an artificial iris made from silicon is folded then inserted into an incision that has been made in the cornea. It is a cosmetic procedure. In it, the iris is adjusted and unfolded to cove one's natural iris. This implant is used to change the color of one’s eyes. It is also sued to treat coloboma or people whose iris have been damaged by traumatic injuries.

Amniotic Membrane Transplant

Amniotic Membrane can function as a temporary graft or a basement membrane substitute in the eye. The membrane has growth factors that promote wound healing. Also, it has anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring effects. AM has two functions, i.e., as a surgical graft and as a biological bandage. AMT is used in ophthalmology to reconstruct the conjunctiva and the cornea after scaring due to disease, acute burns, and corneal persistent epithelial defects.

Chalazion Treatment

A Chalazion is a painless benign nodule or bulge in the lower or upper eyelids. Conservatively, it is managed by lid hygiene and warm compress. Medically, topical or intralesional steroids can be used to minimize inflammation. This can cause regression of the lesion in few weeks. An ophthalmologist best performs surgery to remove the lesion.

Astigmatism Correction

This is type of refractive error in which the eyes don’t focus light evenly on the retina resulting in blurring of vision. It can also lead to night blindness, headaches and eyestrains. The condition is corrected with contact lenses, refractive surgery and eyeglasses.

Vitrectomy (Retinal Detachment Repair)

Retinal detachment repair is eye surgery to place a retina back into its normal position. The retina is the light-sensitive tissue in the back of the eye. Detachment means that it has pulled away from the layers of tissue around it. Most retinal detachment repair operations are urgent. A detached retina does not get a supply of oxygen. This causes the cells in the area to die, which can lead to blindness. If holes or tears in the retina are found before the retina detaches, the eye doctor can close the holes using a laser.

Diagnostic Imaging 18 procedures

Full Body PET CT Scan

This is an imaging modality that allows physicians to see diseases in one’s body. It utilizes a special dye that has a radioactive tracer. This tracer is injected into one's vein and after that distributed in the body where it’s absorbed by tissues and organs. It helps doctor s to see how well they are working. It measures oxygen use, glucose metabolism, blood flow, etc. It helps show problems at cellular level hence useful in detecting brain disorders, heart problems, central nervous system problems like seizure and memory disorders. It also shows the response to cancer to chemotherapy.

MRI Scan Magnetic Resonance Imaging

This is an imaging modality that used strong radio waves and magnetic field to produce imaged of the internal structure of the body. The scanner itself is a large tube that comprises powerful magnets. One lies inside the tube while getting scanned. The machine can produce two type of images, i.e., T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. Sometimes, contrast is used to enhance the images.

Abdominal Ultrasound

This is a type of medical ultrasonography that is used to visualize anatomical structures of the abdomen. It uses the reflection and transmission of sound waves to visualize internal organs of the body via the wall of the abdomen.

Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD)

This is a test used to assess the health of ones. It helps provides information regarding the fragility or strength of one's bones. The test measures the amount of calcium and other minerals

Chest X-Ray

This a radiograph of the chest used to diagnose chest diseases injuries. It is done using an X-ray machine that passes X-rays through the chest into a film to create the image.

CT Scan (Computed Tomography)

This is a modern imaging technique that makes use of that makes use of computed processed X-ray measurements that are taken at different angles to produce tomographic images of specific areas of objects scanned thereby allowing the user to see the internal structure of the object without physically cutting them. It is used in the diagnosis, screening or prevention of diseases.

Diagnostic X-Rays

This is noninvasive imaging modality that involves exposing parts of one’s body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce images of inside the body. They are used for investigating patient’s complaints, e.g., chronic cough, abdominal pains, bone injuries and fever.

Renal Angiogram

This is an imaging test that is done to examine the blood vessels in ones kidneys. It helps reveal blockages aneurysms or stenosis in the kidneys. Radiologist inject a contrast agent into arteries that bring blood to the kidney and X-rays used to monitor the flow. Fluoroscopy can also be used.

Abdominal CT Scan

This is a diagnostic radiological imaging test that is done to help detect diseases of the colon, small bowel and other abdominal organs or determine the cause of abdominal pain.it is noninvasive, accurate, fast and painless.

Full Body PET CT Scan

This is an imaging modality that allows physicians to see diseases in one’s body. It utilizes a special dye that has a radioactive tracer. This tracer is injected into one's vein and after that distributed in the body where it’s absorbed by tissues and organs. It helps doctor s to see how well they are working. It measures oxygen use, glucose metabolism, blood flow, etc. It helps show problems at cellular level hence useful in detecting brain disorders, heart problems, central nervous system problems like seizure and memory disorders. It also shows the response to cancer to chemotherapy.

MRI Scan Magnetic Resonance Imaging

This is an imaging modality that used strong radio waves and magnetic field to produce imaged of the internal structure of the body. The scanner itself is a large tube that comprises powerful magnets. One lies inside the tube while getting scanned. The machine can produce two type of images, i.e., T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. Sometimes, contrast is used to enhance the images.

Abdominal Ultrasound

This is a type of medical ultrasonography that is used to visualize anatomical structures of the abdomen. It uses the reflection and transmission of sound waves to visualize internal organs of the body via the wall of the abdomen.

Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD)

This is a test used to assess the health of ones. It helps provides information regarding the fragility or strength of one's bones. The test measures the amount of calcium and other minerals

Chest X-Ray

This a radiograph of the chest used to diagnose chest diseases injuries. It is done using an X-ray machine that passes X-rays through the chest into a film to create the image.

CT Scan (Computed Tomography)

This is a modern imaging technique that makes use of that makes use of computed processed X-ray measurements that are taken at different angles to produce tomographic images of specific areas of objects scanned thereby allowing the user to see the internal structure of the object without physically cutting them. It is used in the diagnosis, screening or prevention of diseases.

Diagnostic X-Rays

This is noninvasive imaging modality that involves exposing parts of one’s body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce images of inside the body. They are used for investigating patient’s complaints, e.g., chronic cough, abdominal pains, bone injuries and fever.

Renal Angiogram

This is an imaging test that is done to examine the blood vessels in ones kidneys. It helps reveal blockages aneurysms or stenosis in the kidneys. Radiologist inject a contrast agent into arteries that bring blood to the kidney and X-rays used to monitor the flow. Fluoroscopy can also be used.

Abdominal CT Scan

This is a diagnostic radiological imaging test that is done to help detect diseases of the colon, small bowel and other abdominal organs or determine the cause of abdominal pain.it is noninvasive, accurate, fast and painless.

Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) 28 procedures

Adenoidectomy

This is a surgical procedure used to remove the adenoids (lymphoid tissue in the nasopharynx) when they are enlarged hence causing recurrent earache, chronic infections or impaired breathing via the nose. It is performed by an otolaryngologist.

Cochlear Implant

This is an electronic gadget (device) used to replace the functions of the inner ear when it is damaged. The implant does the work of the Cochlear by generating sound signals for the brain. It is thus useful in persons with profound or moderate hearing loss bilaterally. The device helps one to her better. Cochlear implant surgery is done by ENT Surgeon.

Laryngeal Surgery

These are surgeries done on the larynx to remove various pathologies such as laryngeal cancer, laryngeal papilloma, laryngeal granulomas, etc. Total laryngectomy (open) is the complete removal of the larynx while partial is incomplete removal. This normally depends on the location and stage of cancer. Endoscopic laryngeal surgeries are getting common. Microlaryngeal surgeries are used to operate on one's vocal cord. Laser surgery is a recent addition.

Audiometry

It is a test done to test one’s ability to perceive sound. The machine used to do the test is called an audiometer. It measures ones hearing acuity based on variations in sound tone, pitch, and intensity. It helps grade conduction deafness and rules out sensorineural hearing loss.

Laryngectomy

This is the surgical removal of the larynx and then separating it from the nose, esophagus and the moth. It can be total or partial. In total, the entire larynx is removed while in partial, only a portion is exercised. It is commonly used in the treatment of laryngeal cancers. It is a procedure performed by ENT surgeons.

Sleep Apnea Surgery

This surgery is only done when other treatment modalities are exhausted. The list of surgical options that can be done to treat sleep apnea includes: tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy, tracheostomy, radiofrequency ablation, maxilla-mandibular advancement, palatal surgery, bariatric surgery, nerve stimulation and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.

Thyroidectomy

This is the surgical removal of part or whole of the thyroid tissue. The Parathyroid gland is usually preserved. It can be partial thyroidectomy where part of the thyroid is preserved, or it can be total thyroidectomy where the whole of the thyroid tissue is removed. It is commonly indicated for lived conditions like goiter, thyroid malignancies, etc.

Laryngoscopy

This is the endoscopic examination of the larynx and the back of the throat. The larynx is part of the throat. The procedure is carried out ear nose and throat specialists. There are two types of laryngoscopy procedures, i.e., direct laryngoscopy and indirect laryngoscopy.

Myringoplasty

This is a procedure done to correct perforation in the pars tensa of the eardrum. When the procedure is combined with the reconstruction of the ear ossicles, the procedure is termed tympanoplasty. The operation is normally done while the patient is lying supine with the face turned to one side such that the side being operated lies upward. The procedure is carried out otolaryngologists. There are two major techniques currently being used, i.e., the overlay technique and the underlying technique.

Ossicular Chain Reconstruction

This is a procedure done to treat conductive deafness. It sis a middle ear procedure that is performed by otolaryngologists. Damage middle ear bones i.e. stapes, malleus and incus can be replaced in the process.

Septoplasty

This is a procedure done to straighten the nasal septum that lies between the two nasal septums. The submucous septum is resected and reconstructed. It is done to correct a nasal septum that deviates.

Tympanoplasty

This is a surgical operation done to reconstructs the eardrum or the middle ear bones. There are five type of Tympanoplasty procedures i.e. type l to type V Tympanoplasty procedures.

Neck Dissection

This is a surgical procedure in which the fibrofatty content of the neck is removed as a treatment for metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. Head and neck malignances commonly metastasize to the cervical lymph nodes. There are various surgical options available i.e. radical neck dissection, modified radical neck dissection, selective neck dissection and extended radical neck dissection.

Glossectomy

This is the surgical removal of part or whole of the tongue. It is done to manage malignant tumors like oral cancers.

Adenoidectomy

This is a surgical procedure used to remove the adenoids (lymphoid tissue in the nasopharynx) when they are enlarged hence causing recurrent earache, chronic infections or impaired breathing via the nose. It is performed by an otolaryngologist.

Cochlear Implant

This is an electronic gadget (device) used to replace the functions of the inner ear when it is damaged. The implant does the work of the Cochlear by generating sound signals for the brain. It is thus useful in persons with profound or moderate hearing loss bilaterally. The device helps one to her better. Cochlear implant surgery is done by ENT Surgeon.

Laryngeal Surgery

These are surgeries done on the larynx to remove various pathologies such as laryngeal cancer, laryngeal papilloma, laryngeal granulomas, etc. Total laryngectomy (open) is the complete removal of the larynx while partial is incomplete removal. This normally depends on the location and stage of cancer. Endoscopic laryngeal surgeries are getting common. Microlaryngeal surgeries are used to operate on one's vocal cord. Laser surgery is a recent addition.

Audiometry

It is a test done to test one’s ability to perceive sound. The machine used to do the test is called an audiometer. It measures ones hearing acuity based on variations in sound tone, pitch, and intensity. It helps grade conduction deafness and rules out sensorineural hearing loss.

Laryngectomy

This is the surgical removal of the larynx and then separating it from the nose, esophagus and the moth. It can be total or partial. In total, the entire larynx is removed while in partial, only a portion is exercised. It is commonly used in the treatment of laryngeal cancers. It is a procedure performed by ENT surgeons.

Sleep Apnea Surgery

This surgery is only done when other treatment modalities are exhausted. The list of surgical options that can be done to treat sleep apnea includes: tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy, tracheostomy, radiofrequency ablation, maxilla-mandibular advancement, palatal surgery, bariatric surgery, nerve stimulation and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.

Thyroidectomy

This is the surgical removal of part or whole of the thyroid tissue. The Parathyroid gland is usually preserved. It can be partial thyroidectomy where part of the thyroid is preserved, or it can be total thyroidectomy where the whole of the thyroid tissue is removed. It is commonly indicated for lived conditions like goiter, thyroid malignancies, etc.

Laryngoscopy

This is the endoscopic examination of the larynx and the back of the throat. The larynx is part of the throat. The procedure is carried out ear nose and throat specialists. There are two types of laryngoscopy procedures, i.e., direct laryngoscopy and indirect laryngoscopy.

Myringoplasty

This is a procedure done to correct perforation in the pars tensa of the eardrum. When the procedure is combined with the reconstruction of the ear ossicles, the procedure is termed tympanoplasty. The operation is normally done while the patient is lying supine with the face turned to one side such that the side being operated lies upward. The procedure is carried out otolaryngologists. There are two major techniques currently being used, i.e., the overlay technique and the underlying technique.

Ossicular Chain Reconstruction

This is a procedure done to treat conductive deafness. It sis a middle ear procedure that is performed by otolaryngologists. Damage middle ear bones i.e. stapes, malleus and incus can be replaced in the process.

Septoplasty

This is a procedure done to straighten the nasal septum that lies between the two nasal septums. The submucous septum is resected and reconstructed. It is done to correct a nasal septum that deviates.

Tympanoplasty

This is a surgical operation done to reconstructs the eardrum or the middle ear bones. There are five type of Tympanoplasty procedures i.e. type l to type V Tympanoplasty procedures.

Neck Dissection

This is a surgical procedure in which the fibrofatty content of the neck is removed as a treatment for metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. Head and neck malignances commonly metastasize to the cervical lymph nodes. There are various surgical options available i.e. radical neck dissection, modified radical neck dissection, selective neck dissection and extended radical neck dissection.

Glossectomy

This is the surgical removal of part or whole of the tongue. It is done to manage malignant tumors like oral cancers.

Gynecology 38 procedures

Cervical Polyp Removal

Cervical polyps are figure –shaped, red smooth growths in one's cervix. They commonly present as abnormal per vaginal bleed. They occur in multiparous women after the age of 20. They are diagnosed during a pelvic exam. There are removed surgically by gently twisting then tying its base before removing via special forceps. A solution then applied to stop any bleed.

Endometrial Ablation

This is a procedure where the gynecologist surgical destroys the uterine endometrium. Various tools are utilized during the procedure. These may include heated fluid, high energy radio frequencies, extreme cold and microwave energy. Goal is to treat abnormal uterine bleeding by reducing one's menstrual flow.

Gynecologic Laparoscopy

It is a new alternative technique to open surgeries. It allows a surgeon to look into one's pelvis. It can be sued to remove adhesions, manage ectopic pregnancies, manage ovarian cysts, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and myomectomy, do female sterilization (tubal ligation), diagnose & treat endometriosis and cancer investigation and lymph node sampling in cancer treatment.

Antenatal Care (ANC)

This is a type of preventive health care that aims at providing expectant mothers regular checkups to prevent and treat potential health care problems in the course of pregnancy while at the same time creating awareness on healthy living for the benefit of child and mother.

Bartholin's Cyst Treatment

This is a fluid-filled cyst (swelling) of the Bartholin gland. Treatment involves surgical drainage, warm baths, and antibiotics. Marsupialization can often be done to deal with the problem permanently.

Cervical Cautery

This is a procedure used to get rid of abnormal (precancerous or cancerous) cells in a woman’s cervix. It is performed by a gynecologist using electricity, corrosive material, laser, heat or cold. Commonly used methods involve cryocauterization or electrocoagulation.

Amniocentesis

This is a medical procedure used perinatal to diagnoses fetal infections and chromosomal abnormalities and also determine the sex of a child. A small amount of amniotic fluid that contains fetal tissues is samples from the amniotic sac containing the fetus then DNA analysis is done.

Breast Biopsy

This is a procedure used to obtain a sample of a tumor in the breast for purposes of laboratory and histological analysis. Various breast sampling techniques are available, e.g., FNA, incisional biopsy, excisional biopsy, and core biopsy.

Cervical Cerclage

This is a treatment for cervical insufficiency or incompetence where the cervix shortens and open too early in a pregnancy leading to a pregnancy loss (preterm birth or miscarriage). The most commonly done cervical Cerclage technique is MacDonald’s stitch.

Cervical Biopsy

This is a surgical; procedure where a small amount of tissue is taken out from the cervix. The sample collected is taken to the laboratory for histological analysis to determine whether there is cancer and if present, which type. It is commonly done after abnormalities are detected in a Pap smear or routine pelvic exam including VIA/VILI. There are three types of biopsies, i.e., cone biopsy, endocervical curettage and punch biopsy.

Pelvic Adhesiolysis

Adhesions are scar tissue bands that form between organs in the body. They form as parts of the body’s natural repair mechanisms respond to tissues disturbances like infections, surgery, radiation, pathologies or trauma. Adhesiolysis is a surgery meant to remove these adhesions so that normal organ functions and anatomy is restored and pain relieved. They are managed via laparoscopic or open surgical procedures.

Breast Exam

This is the clinical examination of one's breasts by medical practitioners to check them for any abnormalities. The physical exam is done by the health professional during one's routine medical checkup or when someone has complications related to breast. The exam should only be carried out by a professional trained in breast exam techniques. The results will be complemented either by mammograms or breast ultrasound.

Myomectomy

This is the surgical removal of uterine fibroids especially symptomatic ones. The procedure aims to conserve the uterus for possible future deliveries.

Ectopic Pregnancy Surgery

This is an emergency exploratory laparotomy surgical procedure done to manage a raptured ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancies are extra uterine pregnancies.

Hysterectomy

This is the surgical removal of the uterus. It is a procedure done by gynecologists. It can either be total (where the entire uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix and upper third of vagina is resected) or partial. The option depend upon the patient choice and the indication for the operation.

Microdochectomy

This is a surgical procedure done to remove a portion of the lactiferous duct. It is the standard treatment for nipple discharges that arise from a single duct. The procedure can be done under guidance of a ductoscope.

Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE)

This is a procedure that is performed by interventional radiologist. A catheter is used to deliver small particles that then block uterine body blood supply. Common indications include adenomyosis and uterine fibroids.

Hysteroscopy

Hysteroscopy gets its name from the thin, lighted tool used to view the womb, called a hysteroscope. This tool sends images of the inside of the womb to a video monitor. Before the procedure, you will be given medicine to help you relax and block pain. Sometimes, medicine is given to help you fall asleep. During the procedure the provider places the scope through the vagina and cervix, into the womb, gas or fluid may be placed into the womb so it expands. This helps the provider see the area better and pictures of the womb can be seen on the video screen.

Laparoscopic Myomectomy

Laparoscopic Myomectomy uses a small telescope placed through the belly button along with several small instruments to remove fibroids from the uterus. The technique of actually removing the fibroid from the uterus is similar to that of an abdominal myomectomy except we use small instruments placed through the abdominal wall. Once the fibroid is freed from the uterus it needs to be removed from the abdomen. In order to remove a large fibroid from a small incision we use an instrument called a morcellator, to cut it into pieces small enough to be removed through the small incisions.

Cervical Polyp Removal

Cervical polyps are figure –shaped, red smooth growths in one's cervix. They commonly present as abnormal per vaginal bleed. They occur in multiparous women after the age of 20. They are diagnosed during a pelvic exam. There are removed surgically by gently twisting then tying its base before removing via special forceps. A solution then applied to stop any bleed.

Endometrial Ablation

This is a procedure where the gynecologist surgical destroys the uterine endometrium. Various tools are utilized during the procedure. These may include heated fluid, high energy radio frequencies, extreme cold and microwave energy. Goal is to treat abnormal uterine bleeding by reducing one's menstrual flow.

Gynecologic Laparoscopy

It is a new alternative technique to open surgeries. It allows a surgeon to look into one's pelvis. It can be sued to remove adhesions, manage ectopic pregnancies, manage ovarian cysts, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and myomectomy, do female sterilization (tubal ligation), diagnose & treat endometriosis and cancer investigation and lymph node sampling in cancer treatment.

Antenatal Care (ANC)

This is a type of preventive health care that aims at providing expectant mothers regular checkups to prevent and treat potential health care problems in the course of pregnancy while at the same time creating awareness on healthy living for the benefit of child and mother.

Bartholin's Cyst Treatment

This is a fluid-filled cyst (swelling) of the Bartholin gland. Treatment involves surgical drainage, warm baths, and antibiotics. Marsupialization can often be done to deal with the problem permanently.

Cervical Cautery

This is a procedure used to get rid of abnormal (precancerous or cancerous) cells in a woman’s cervix. It is performed by a gynecologist using electricity, corrosive material, laser, heat or cold. Commonly used methods involve cryocauterization or electrocoagulation.

Amniocentesis

This is a medical procedure used perinatal to diagnoses fetal infections and chromosomal abnormalities and also determine the sex of a child. A small amount of amniotic fluid that contains fetal tissues is samples from the amniotic sac containing the fetus then DNA analysis is done.

Breast Biopsy

This is a procedure used to obtain a sample of a tumor in the breast for purposes of laboratory and histological analysis. Various breast sampling techniques are available, e.g., FNA, incisional biopsy, excisional biopsy, and core biopsy.

Cervical Cerclage

This is a treatment for cervical insufficiency or incompetence where the cervix shortens and open too early in a pregnancy leading to a pregnancy loss (preterm birth or miscarriage). The most commonly done cervical Cerclage technique is MacDonald’s stitch.

Cervical Biopsy

This is a surgical; procedure where a small amount of tissue is taken out from the cervix. The sample collected is taken to the laboratory for histological analysis to determine whether there is cancer and if present, which type. It is commonly done after abnormalities are detected in a Pap smear or routine pelvic exam including VIA/VILI. There are three types of biopsies, i.e., cone biopsy, endocervical curettage and punch biopsy.

Pelvic Adhesiolysis

Adhesions are scar tissue bands that form between organs in the body. They form as parts of the body’s natural repair mechanisms respond to tissues disturbances like infections, surgery, radiation, pathologies or trauma. Adhesiolysis is a surgery meant to remove these adhesions so that normal organ functions and anatomy is restored and pain relieved. They are managed via laparoscopic or open surgical procedures.

Breast Exam

This is the clinical examination of one's breasts by medical practitioners to check them for any abnormalities. The physical exam is done by the health professional during one's routine medical checkup or when someone has complications related to breast. The exam should only be carried out by a professional trained in breast exam techniques. The results will be complemented either by mammograms or breast ultrasound.

Myomectomy

This is the surgical removal of uterine fibroids especially symptomatic ones. The procedure aims to conserve the uterus for possible future deliveries.

Ectopic Pregnancy Surgery

This is an emergency exploratory laparotomy surgical procedure done to manage a raptured ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancies are extra uterine pregnancies.

Hysterectomy

This is the surgical removal of the uterus. It is a procedure done by gynecologists. It can either be total (where the entire uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix and upper third of vagina is resected) or partial. The option depend upon the patient choice and the indication for the operation.

Microdochectomy

This is a surgical procedure done to remove a portion of the lactiferous duct. It is the standard treatment for nipple discharges that arise from a single duct. The procedure can be done under guidance of a ductoscope.

Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE)

This is a procedure that is performed by interventional radiologist. A catheter is used to deliver small particles that then block uterine body blood supply. Common indications include adenomyosis and uterine fibroids.

Hysteroscopy

Hysteroscopy gets its name from the thin, lighted tool used to view the womb, called a hysteroscope. This tool sends images of the inside of the womb to a video monitor. Before the procedure, you will be given medicine to help you relax and block pain. Sometimes, medicine is given to help you fall asleep. During the procedure the provider places the scope through the vagina and cervix, into the womb, gas or fluid may be placed into the womb so it expands. This helps the provider see the area better and pictures of the womb can be seen on the video screen.

Laparoscopic Myomectomy

Laparoscopic Myomectomy uses a small telescope placed through the belly button along with several small instruments to remove fibroids from the uterus. The technique of actually removing the fibroid from the uterus is similar to that of an abdominal myomectomy except we use small instruments placed through the abdominal wall. Once the fibroid is freed from the uterus it needs to be removed from the abdomen. In order to remove a large fibroid from a small incision we use an instrument called a morcellator, to cut it into pieces small enough to be removed through the small incisions.

Neurosurgery 20 procedures

Craniotomy

These are a surgical procedure where bone flaps are temporarily removed from the skull to give access to the brain. The bone flaps are created by specialized tools. Sometimes it’s done under the guidance of CT scans or MRI scans to localize the areas of treatment (stereotactic Craniotomy). A craniotomy is used in stereotactic biopsy of the brain, stereotactic radiosurgery & stereotactic aspiration of hematomas, cysts or abscesses. A craniotomy is also useful in aneurysmal clipping and removal of brain tumors. Are of various types, i.e., translabarynthine Craniotomy, retro-sigmoid Craniotomy, extended bifrontal Craniotomy and supra-orbital Craniotomy.

Peripheral Nerve Surgery

This is practiced by surgeons from various backgrounds with expertise in plastic and reconstructive surgery, neurology, pain medicine, and orthopedics hence the need for a multidisciplinary care. The surgeries included entrapment neuropathies, nerve sheath tumors like schwannomas and acute nerve injuries.

Subdural Hematoma (SDH) Surgery

SDH is an intracranial hemorrhage that takes place beneath the meningeal Dura matter and may be associated with other traumatic brain injuries. They can be spontaneous, iatrogenic like from lumbar punctures or traumatic. SDH can be acute or chronic. SDH surgery involves a craniotomy to decompress brain tissue, stop active bleeding and possibly evacuate the hematoma.

Brain Aneurysm Repair

This is an endovascular surgical procedure. A catheter is usually guided via a small cut in one's groin to an artery and then passed through the vessel to the brain where an aneurysm is situated. Alternatively, the surgery can be performed alongside open craniotomy.

Brain Tumor Surgery

Surgery is the common modality for managing many malignant and most benign tumors. The operation is performed by a neurosurgeon. It helps relieve seizures, remove tumors, take biopsies and enable chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Common techniques used include craniotomy, craniotomy, partial or complete removal, shunting, transsphenoidal surgery, LITT, etc.

Cranioplasty

This is the surgical repair of a deformity or defect in the skull. The defect is normally as a result of a previous injury or surgery. It might also be a congenital defect. The surgery is performed for cosmetic reasons and patient psychological wellbeing.

Chiari Malformation Treatment

Chiari Malformation is a condition in which tissues of the brain protrude into the spinal canal via the foramen magnum. This can lead to hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Treatment involves monitoring of the condition and surgery. Surgical procedures done include Decompressive craniectomy & laminectomy.

Brachial Plexus Injury Treatment

An operation to correct brachial plexus injuries should be performed within 6-7 months the injury as, beyond this period, the prognosis is poor. Teat such as MRI, CT, nerve conduction studies and electromyogram are usually done to determine the extent of the injury. Treatment can either be surgically or non-surgical, i.e., occupational therapy or physiotherapy or splinting /orthosis.

Epilepsy Surgery

This is a procedure done to treat epilepsy in order to reduce or stop the seizures. There are different types of epilepsy surgical procedure. This includes removal of the area in the brain causing this seizures or separating the part of the brain causing these tumors from the rest.

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Surgery

This is a surgical procedure that is done to implant a device that send electrical stimulus signals to brain regions responsible for body movement. Electrode is placed deep in the brain and then connected to a stimulating device. DBS helps remove symptoms of slowness of movement, tremor, walking problems and stiffness that is caused by dystonia, essential tremor or Parkinsonism disease.

Craniotomy

These are a surgical procedure where bone flaps are temporarily removed from the skull to give access to the brain. The bone flaps are created by specialized tools. Sometimes it’s done under the guidance of CT scans or MRI scans to localize the areas of treatment (stereotactic Craniotomy). A craniotomy is used in stereotactic biopsy of the brain, stereotactic radiosurgery & stereotactic aspiration of hematomas, cysts or abscesses. A craniotomy is also useful in aneurysmal clipping and removal of brain tumors. Are of various types, i.e., translabarynthine Craniotomy, retro-sigmoid Craniotomy, extended bifrontal Craniotomy and supra-orbital Craniotomy.

Peripheral Nerve Surgery

This is practiced by surgeons from various backgrounds with expertise in plastic and reconstructive surgery, neurology, pain medicine, and orthopedics hence the need for a multidisciplinary care. The surgeries included entrapment neuropathies, nerve sheath tumors like schwannomas and acute nerve injuries.

Subdural Hematoma (SDH) Surgery

SDH is an intracranial hemorrhage that takes place beneath the meningeal Dura matter and may be associated with other traumatic brain injuries. They can be spontaneous, iatrogenic like from lumbar punctures or traumatic. SDH can be acute or chronic. SDH surgery involves a craniotomy to decompress brain tissue, stop active bleeding and possibly evacuate the hematoma.

Brain Aneurysm Repair

This is an endovascular surgical procedure. A catheter is usually guided via a small cut in one's groin to an artery and then passed through the vessel to the brain where an aneurysm is situated. Alternatively, the surgery can be performed alongside open craniotomy.

Brain Tumor Surgery

Surgery is the common modality for managing many malignant and most benign tumors. The operation is performed by a neurosurgeon. It helps relieve seizures, remove tumors, take biopsies and enable chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Common techniques used include craniotomy, craniotomy, partial or complete removal, shunting, transsphenoidal surgery, LITT, etc.

Cranioplasty

This is the surgical repair of a deformity or defect in the skull. The defect is normally as a result of a previous injury or surgery. It might also be a congenital defect. The surgery is performed for cosmetic reasons and patient psychological wellbeing.

Chiari Malformation Treatment

Chiari Malformation is a condition in which tissues of the brain protrude into the spinal canal via the foramen magnum. This can lead to hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Treatment involves monitoring of the condition and surgery. Surgical procedures done include Decompressive craniectomy & laminectomy.

Brachial Plexus Injury Treatment

An operation to correct brachial plexus injuries should be performed within 6-7 months the injury as, beyond this period, the prognosis is poor. Teat such as MRI, CT, nerve conduction studies and electromyogram are usually done to determine the extent of the injury. Treatment can either be surgically or non-surgical, i.e., occupational therapy or physiotherapy or splinting /orthosis.

Epilepsy Surgery

This is a procedure done to treat epilepsy in order to reduce or stop the seizures. There are different types of epilepsy surgical procedure. This includes removal of the area in the brain causing this seizures or separating the part of the brain causing these tumors from the rest.

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Surgery

This is a surgical procedure that is done to implant a device that send electrical stimulus signals to brain regions responsible for body movement. Electrode is placed deep in the brain and then connected to a stimulating device. DBS helps remove symptoms of slowness of movement, tremor, walking problems and stiffness that is caused by dystonia, essential tremor or Parkinsonism disease.

Oncology 42 procedures

Breast Cancer Treatment

Treatment of breast cancer depends on the stage. The treatment may involve radiotherapy, surgery or medications. The types of surgeries used included mastectomy (radical mastectomy or simple mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, patery modified radical mastectomy), breast-conserving surgery, lumpectomy and lymph node dissection. Medical therapy involves chemotherapy for breast cancer or systemic hormonal therapy like tamoxifen.

Cervical Cancer Treatment

Treatment of cervical cancer depends on the stage though other factors like the site of the tumor, ones desire for children, overall health, age, and type of cancer. While in stage 0 (CIS), the condition can be managed by loop electrosurgical procedure, simple hysterectomy, cone biopsy, cryotherapy and laser therapy. At stage 1a, cone biopsy is preferred. At stage 1A2, cone biopsy or radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection is preferred, but for those who don’t desire fertility, EBRT and radical hysterectomy are desirable. At stage 1B and 2A, surgery and radiation or concurrent chemoradiation are desirable. At stage 2B, 3 and 4A chemo-radiation is used. At stage 4B, chemo-radiotherapy to try to slow down the tumor.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to treat diseases. But in medicine, it is commonly used when referring to the medical treatment of cancer that utilizes one or more antineoplastic medications as part of a standardized chemotherapeutic regimen. They are given with the intent to reduce symptoms, prolong life or cure cancer. Each cancer has a specific regiment that has been prepared for its management. Medical oncologists administrate chemotherapeutic regiment.

Acute Leukemia Treatment

The statement of acute leukemia depends on the subtype of leukemia. Treatment empathizes long-term cemetery with antineoplastic drugs. Various combination of chemotherapeutic agents has been developed for various leukemias. Oncologist use chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy and stem cell transplant.

Brachytherapy

Its a kind of radiotherapy where a sealed source of radiation is next to or inside the place needing treatment. A radioactive material is placed inside the body hence sometimes referred to as internal radiation. It is used in the management of cancer of the prostate, skin, cervical and breast and other tumors in the body. It can be used together with chemotherapy, surgery or EBRT.

Bladder Cancer Treatment

Medical and surgical modalities are used treatment of bladder cancer. The surgery done is either partial or complete Cystectomy. This involves partial or complete removal of the bladder. Medical therapy includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Cancer Screening

The goal of this exercise is to detect cancers before their symptoms manifest. The test encompasses medical imaging, blood tests, urinalysis and other tests. It is common knowledge that the benefit of having a cancer screen done outweighs outweigh anybody harm that may result from the process. When cancerous tissues are detected early, they are easy to cure or treat. The most common cancers that are routinely screened are breast, colon, oral, prostate, pancreatic, lung, bowel and cervical cancers.

Whipple Procedure

Whipple Procedure also known as kaush-Whipple Procedure, pancretoduodectopmy, pancreaticoduodenectomy is a major surgical procedure dome to remove cancer of head of pancreas. It involves the removal of the common bile duct, the gallbladder, the duodenum and portions of the stomach.

Chronic Leukemia Treatment

The treatment of chronic leukemia depend on a person’s age, reason for treatment, disease risk group, stage of cancer, signs and symptoms of disease, patient preference and overall health. Treatment options included targeted drug therapy, chemotherapy, bone marrow transplant, and immunotherapy.

Glioblastoma Treatment

Glioblastoma (Glioblastoma multiform) is a malignant tumor that affects the spinal cord and the brain. It is usually quite aggressive hence can spread quickly and grow fast. Treatment includes radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery (craniotomy and radiosurgery).

Laryngeal Cancer Treatment

Laryngeal Cancer is a condition which cancerous cells form from larynx tissues. The most common presentation include ear pain and sore throat. Laryngectomy (total) in addition to thyroidectomy and nodal removal followed by radiotherapy is the most common mode of treatment.

Cancer Staging

Staging is the process used to find out the amount of cancer in the body and their locations. The information is used by doctors to formulate the patient treatment plan and to determine their prognosis. There are four different ways staging is done i.e. pathological staging, post-neoadjuvanat or post-therapy staging, clinical staging and restaging (done when cancer recurs after treatment). The four factors used in staging include: site of primary tumor, the tumor size, the involvement of lymph nodes and metastases. Tests done to enable staging process include imaging tests, pathological tests, surgical reports, laboratory tests and physical examination.

CyberKnife Treatment

This is a non-invasive treatment for benign and malignant tumors and other conditions that need radiotherapy. It is a flameless radiosurgery robotic system that uses targeted radiation to destroy tumor in the body. It is designed to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues and organs to radiation. It is pain free, does not need hospitalization or general anesthesia, spare healthy tissues, non-invasive and one only need one to five sessions to complete treatment.

Head and Neck Cancer Treatment (Throat Cancer)

Treatment of head and neck malignancies depend on the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment modalities used in the management of these malignancies included radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy. Surgical options included laser technology, excision, neck dissection or lymph node dissection, and reconstructive surgery. Target therapy is available.

High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

This is a new medical technology that is under development and can be used to treat a wide range of disorderds.it is a treatment modality that aims to kill cancerous cells using high frequency sound waves. It is only useful in the management of a single tumor or a section of a larger tumor hence not useful for highly malignant cancers.

Adrenal Cancer Treatment

Treatment of adrenal cancer depend on the stage. Stage 1 and two are treated surgically which may be combined with radiotherapy or mitotane administration. Stage 3 is treated surgically. This may be preceded by adjuvant radiotherapy or mitotane. For stage 4, a debulking surgery is done followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

Bile Duct Cancer Treatment

Treatment of this condition depend on the stage. Medical procedure used included chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolization, ERCP and radiotherapy. Surgical options available include hepatectomy and pancreatic tumor removal surgery.

Lymph Node Biopsy

A lymph node biopsy is the removal of lymph node tissue for examination under a microscope. The lymph nodes are small glands that make white blood cells (lymphocytes), which fight infection. Lymph nodes may trap the germs that are causing an infection. Cancer often spreads to lymph nodes. A lymph node biopsy is done in an operating room in a hospital. Or, it is done at an outpatient surgical center.

Blood Cancer Treatment (Leukemia)

Leukaemia is cancer of blood-forming tissues, including bone marrow. Many types exist such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Bone Cancer Treatment

Signs and symptoms of bone cancer include Bone pain, Swelling and tenderness near the affected area, Weakened bone, leading to fracture, Fatigue, Unintended weight loss.

Liver cancer Treatment (hepatic cancer)

Cancer that begins in the cells of the liver. Symptoms are uncommon in the early stages of liver cancer. Later, symptoms may include weight loss, stomach pain, vomiting and yellowed skin.

Breast Cancer Treatment

Treatment of breast cancer depends on the stage. The treatment may involve radiotherapy, surgery or medications. The types of surgeries used included mastectomy (radical mastectomy or simple mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, patery modified radical mastectomy), breast-conserving surgery, lumpectomy and lymph node dissection. Medical therapy involves chemotherapy for breast cancer or systemic hormonal therapy like tamoxifen.

Cervical Cancer Treatment

Treatment of cervical cancer depends on the stage though other factors like the site of the tumor, ones desire for children, overall health, age, and type of cancer. While in stage 0 (CIS), the condition can be managed by loop electrosurgical procedure, simple hysterectomy, cone biopsy, cryotherapy and laser therapy. At stage 1a, cone biopsy is preferred. At stage 1A2, cone biopsy or radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection is preferred, but for those who don’t desire fertility, EBRT and radical hysterectomy are desirable. At stage 1B and 2A, surgery and radiation or concurrent chemoradiation are desirable. At stage 2B, 3 and 4A chemo-radiation is used. At stage 4B, chemo-radiotherapy to try to slow down the tumor.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to treat diseases. But in medicine, it is commonly used when referring to the medical treatment of cancer that utilizes one or more antineoplastic medications as part of a standardized chemotherapeutic regimen. They are given with the intent to reduce symptoms, prolong life or cure cancer. Each cancer has a specific regiment that has been prepared for its management. Medical oncologists administrate chemotherapeutic regiment.

Acute Leukemia Treatment

The statement of acute leukemia depends on the subtype of leukemia. Treatment empathizes long-term cemetery with antineoplastic drugs. Various combination of chemotherapeutic agents has been developed for various leukemias. Oncologist use chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy and stem cell transplant.

Brachytherapy

Its a kind of radiotherapy where a sealed source of radiation is next to or inside the place needing treatment. A radioactive material is placed inside the body hence sometimes referred to as internal radiation. It is used in the management of cancer of the prostate, skin, cervical and breast and other tumors in the body. It can be used together with chemotherapy, surgery or EBRT.

Bladder Cancer Treatment

Medical and surgical modalities are used treatment of bladder cancer. The surgery done is either partial or complete Cystectomy. This involves partial or complete removal of the bladder. Medical therapy includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Cancer Screening

The goal of this exercise is to detect cancers before their symptoms manifest. The test encompasses medical imaging, blood tests, urinalysis and other tests. It is common knowledge that the benefit of having a cancer screen done outweighs outweigh anybody harm that may result from the process. When cancerous tissues are detected early, they are easy to cure or treat. The most common cancers that are routinely screened are breast, colon, oral, prostate, pancreatic, lung, bowel and cervical cancers.

Whipple Procedure

Whipple Procedure also known as kaush-Whipple Procedure, pancretoduodectopmy, pancreaticoduodenectomy is a major surgical procedure dome to remove cancer of head of pancreas. It involves the removal of the common bile duct, the gallbladder, the duodenum and portions of the stomach.

Chronic Leukemia Treatment

The treatment of chronic leukemia depend on a person’s age, reason for treatment, disease risk group, stage of cancer, signs and symptoms of disease, patient preference and overall health. Treatment options included targeted drug therapy, chemotherapy, bone marrow transplant, and immunotherapy.

Glioblastoma Treatment

Glioblastoma (Glioblastoma multiform) is a malignant tumor that affects the spinal cord and the brain. It is usually quite aggressive hence can spread quickly and grow fast. Treatment includes radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery (craniotomy and radiosurgery).

Laryngeal Cancer Treatment

Laryngeal Cancer is a condition which cancerous cells form from larynx tissues. The most common presentation include ear pain and sore throat. Laryngectomy (total) in addition to thyroidectomy and nodal removal followed by radiotherapy is the most common mode of treatment.

Cancer Staging

Staging is the process used to find out the amount of cancer in the body and their locations. The information is used by doctors to formulate the patient treatment plan and to determine their prognosis. There are four different ways staging is done i.e. pathological staging, post-neoadjuvanat or post-therapy staging, clinical staging and restaging (done when cancer recurs after treatment). The four factors used in staging include: site of primary tumor, the tumor size, the involvement of lymph nodes and metastases. Tests done to enable staging process include imaging tests, pathological tests, surgical reports, laboratory tests and physical examination.

CyberKnife Treatment

This is a non-invasive treatment for benign and malignant tumors and other conditions that need radiotherapy. It is a flameless radiosurgery robotic system that uses targeted radiation to destroy tumor in the body. It is designed to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues and organs to radiation. It is pain free, does not need hospitalization or general anesthesia, spare healthy tissues, non-invasive and one only need one to five sessions to complete treatment.

Head and Neck Cancer Treatment (Throat Cancer)

Treatment of head and neck malignancies depend on the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment modalities used in the management of these malignancies included radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy. Surgical options included laser technology, excision, neck dissection or lymph node dissection, and reconstructive surgery. Target therapy is available.

High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

This is a new medical technology that is under development and can be used to treat a wide range of disorderds.it is a treatment modality that aims to kill cancerous cells using high frequency sound waves. It is only useful in the management of a single tumor or a section of a larger tumor hence not useful for highly malignant cancers.

Adrenal Cancer Treatment

Treatment of adrenal cancer depend on the stage. Stage 1 and two are treated surgically which may be combined with radiotherapy or mitotane administration. Stage 3 is treated surgically. This may be preceded by adjuvant radiotherapy or mitotane. For stage 4, a debulking surgery is done followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

Bile Duct Cancer Treatment

Treatment of this condition depend on the stage. Medical procedure used included chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolization, ERCP and radiotherapy. Surgical options available include hepatectomy and pancreatic tumor removal surgery.

Lymph Node Biopsy

A lymph node biopsy is the removal of lymph node tissue for examination under a microscope. The lymph nodes are small glands that make white blood cells (lymphocytes), which fight infection. Lymph nodes may trap the germs that are causing an infection. Cancer often spreads to lymph nodes. A lymph node biopsy is done in an operating room in a hospital. Or, it is done at an outpatient surgical center.

Blood Cancer Treatment (Leukemia)

Leukaemia is cancer of blood-forming tissues, including bone marrow. Many types exist such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Bone Cancer Treatment

Signs and symptoms of bone cancer include Bone pain, Swelling and tenderness near the affected area, Weakened bone, leading to fracture, Fatigue, Unintended weight loss.

Liver cancer Treatment (hepatic cancer)

Cancer that begins in the cells of the liver. Symptoms are uncommon in the early stages of liver cancer. Later, symptoms may include weight loss, stomach pain, vomiting and yellowed skin.

Orthopedics 44 procedures

Bunion Surgery

A bunion is very painful. They are bony bumps which form at the base of one’s big toe. It normally forms a union between this toe and the 1st metatarsal one. Bunion removal surgery helps correct the area of deformity that forms on foot near the big toe. The surgery is sometimes referred to as hallux valgus correction or bunionectomy.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgery

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is the tingling, numbness, weakness plus other problems in one's hand because of pressure being applied to the median nerve as it traverses the wrist. The small space where it passes through in the wrist called the Carpal Tunnel. This surgery is meant to relive the pressure hence relieving the symptoms. The two types of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgeries are open and endoscopic, all available in India.

Hip Replacement

This is an orthopedic surgical procedure where a damaged hip is replaced with an implant, i.e., a prosthesis. This procedure can be performed either as hemi-replacement (only femoral head is replaced) or total replacement (i.e., total hip arthroplasty where both the femoral head and acetabulum are replaced).

Knee Replacement

Knee Replacement (arthroplasty) is an operation used to replace weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve disability and pain. Especially in patients with osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Surgical techniques available include total knee replacement, partial knee replacement and femoral replacement.

Shoulder Replacement

Shoulder Replacement (arthroplasty) is an operation in which a prosthesis is used to replace part or all of the glenohumeral joint to relieve disability and pain. It is used to fix shoulder joint damage or relieve arthritic pain. We have the traditional shoulder total shoulder arthroplasty and the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty approach. The latter has two approaches, i.e., the deltopectoral approach and the transdeltoid approach.

Ankle Arthroscopy

Its an ankle replacement surgery done to replace damaged joint articular surfaces with prosthetic implants. It is currently a more preferred option than arthrodesis.

Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI)

This is a new type of orthopedic procedure that is used to manage to isolate full thickness joint articular surface defect in the knees. It is performed in three stages where about 2000-300 milligrams of cartilage is sampled from a less weight bearing area of a joins, isolated enzymatically then grown in a lab for six weeks before transplanting in damaged areas so that they grow and form new cartilage.

Knee Ligament Surgery (ACL)

This is a procedure done to treat knee ligament tears. It is currently done as a laparoscopic procedure, but open surgery is still practiced in some regions of the world. It helps reduce pain and improve stability in the joint.

Benign Bone Tumor Removal

Benign Bone Tumors are not cancers hence do not metastasize to other areas of the body. They however greatly weaken a one. Common one tumor include giant cell tumors, osteoid osteoma, osteochondroma, and osteoblastoma. Treatment involves surgical excision of the tumor or scrapping out (curettage) of the tumor with bone grafting.

Congenital Hip Dislocation Treatment

Congenital Hip Dislocation is also known as developmental dysplasia of the hip. It is a condition where a child is born with an unstable joint due to abnormal formation of the joint in early fetal development stages. It is more common in girls than boys. Screening for the condition occurs at birth and in the first year of life. A baby younger than 6 years is treated using a Pavlik harness. If this fails, the condition is managed via surgery. Surgical options include open reduction or closed reduction, after which the hip and leg are placed in a cast for at least 12 weeks. A child who is 18 months or older is managed by pelvic or femoral osteotomy to reconstruct their hip.

Achilles Tendon Rupture

This is a complete tear through the tendon, usually about two inches from the calcaneal (heel) bone. The tendon it vital to activities like jumping, walking or running. The rupture is common in those suffering from Achilles tendinitis, illnesses like diabetes or on drugs like steroids and antibiotics. Surgery is essential for faster healing. However, a cast can be used to allow the leg heal naturally but will take quite long.

Ankle Fracture Treatment

Ankle fractures can be treated surgically or non-surgically. The method will depend on the degree of injury and the patient’s choice. The non-surgical options include casting and splinting.

Limb Amputation

This is the removal of a limb by surgery, medical or trauma. As a surgical measure, it is used to control a disease process affected limb like gangrene and malignancy or to control pain. It may also be carried of prophylactically to prevent these problems.

Bone Fracture Treatment

Treatment depend on the severity of the fracture, patient choice and cost of treatment. Medically, reduction is done to fix a dislocated or Brocken bone. Devices available to fix fracture include orthopedic casts, splints, elastic bandages, and traction splint. Therapeutic physical therapy and joint manipulation can be done. Surgery included internal and external fixation.

Clubfoot Treatment

Club foot is also known as congenital talipes equinovarus. It is a combination of four thing in one i.e. cavus, adductus, varus and equinus. There are several types of clubfoot. It is a highly disabling condition if not managed early. The condition can be managed Non-operatively by Ponseti technique, Kite technique and French technique. Surgical options included: Posteromedial soft tissue release, Osteotomies, Triple arthrodesis, Achilles tenotomy and JESS.

Elbow Replacement

This s a procedure done to replace elbow joint that has been damaged by disease or trauma. It is indicated in severe loss of function, instability, joint destruction, severe pain or deformity. It is successful in relieving people of pain and improving the overall quality of life of the patient.

Knee Ligament Surgery (MCL)

The MCL is one of the four ligaments of the knee. A Knee Ligament Surgery is done to treat torn ligament as a result of injurer. As the MCL surgery is located outside the joint, no surgical key hole are usually necessary. The torn ligament can be reattached with staples, screws and screws through a small incision.

Knee Arthroscopy

These is a surgical procedure that is done to teat or diagnose knee joint problems like injuries and diseases. During the procedure, a small incision is made and an Arthroscope (tiny camera) inserted into the knees therapy allowing the examiner to see the inside of the joint on a live screen.

Ankle Fusion Surgery

Also known as ankle arthrodesis, is a surgical procedure done to fuse the different bones that make up the ankle joint into one piece. It is done when the joint become painful and worn out due to disease or previous trauma.

Ankle Replacement

The procedure is also known as total ankle arthroplasty. It is an orthopedic procedure done to replace the ankle joint articular surfaces that have been damaged by disease or injury with prosthetic components. It is done to treat ankle arthritis.

Artificial Limb Services

These services are provided to patient whose limb have been amputated so that they are able to walk again and improve their quality of life. The patient’s needs will be assessed on an individual basis and a variety of prosthetic equipment make available to support ones upper and lower limbs. Rehabilitative service are provided try a dedicated team of specialists.

Abscess Debridement

Abscess is by infectious process that features collection of pus that is surrounded by inflamed tissue. The Debridement entails incision and drainage of the lesion followed by packing then proper dressing of the wound. The patient is then made to undergo a course of antibiotics.

Bunion Surgery

A bunion is very painful. They are bony bumps which form at the base of one’s big toe. It normally forms a union between this toe and the 1st metatarsal one. Bunion removal surgery helps correct the area of deformity that forms on foot near the big toe. The surgery is sometimes referred to as hallux valgus correction or bunionectomy.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgery

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is the tingling, numbness, weakness plus other problems in one's hand because of pressure being applied to the median nerve as it traverses the wrist. The small space where it passes through in the wrist called the Carpal Tunnel. This surgery is meant to relive the pressure hence relieving the symptoms. The two types of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgeries are open and endoscopic, all available in India.

Hip Replacement

This is an orthopedic surgical procedure where a damaged hip is replaced with an implant, i.e., a prosthesis. This procedure can be performed either as hemi-replacement (only femoral head is replaced) or total replacement (i.e., total hip arthroplasty where both the femoral head and acetabulum are replaced).

Knee Replacement

Knee Replacement (arthroplasty) is an operation used to replace weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve disability and pain. Especially in patients with osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Surgical techniques available include total knee replacement, partial knee replacement and femoral replacement.

Shoulder Replacement

Shoulder Replacement (arthroplasty) is an operation in which a prosthesis is used to replace part or all of the glenohumeral joint to relieve disability and pain. It is used to fix shoulder joint damage or relieve arthritic pain. We have the traditional shoulder total shoulder arthroplasty and the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty approach. The latter has two approaches, i.e., the deltopectoral approach and the transdeltoid approach.

Ankle Arthroscopy

Its an ankle replacement surgery done to replace damaged joint articular surfaces with prosthetic implants. It is currently a more preferred option than arthrodesis.

Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI)

This is a new type of orthopedic procedure that is used to manage to isolate full thickness joint articular surface defect in the knees. It is performed in three stages where about 2000-300 milligrams of cartilage is sampled from a less weight bearing area of a joins, isolated enzymatically then grown in a lab for six weeks before transplanting in damaged areas so that they grow and form new cartilage.

Knee Ligament Surgery (ACL)

This is a procedure done to treat knee ligament tears. It is currently done as a laparoscopic procedure, but open surgery is still practiced in some regions of the world. It helps reduce pain and improve stability in the joint.

Benign Bone Tumor Removal

Benign Bone Tumors are not cancers hence do not metastasize to other areas of the body. They however greatly weaken a one. Common one tumor include giant cell tumors, osteoid osteoma, osteochondroma, and osteoblastoma. Treatment involves surgical excision of the tumor or scrapping out (curettage) of the tumor with bone grafting.

Congenital Hip Dislocation Treatment

Congenital Hip Dislocation is also known as developmental dysplasia of the hip. It is a condition where a child is born with an unstable joint due to abnormal formation of the joint in early fetal development stages. It is more common in girls than boys. Screening for the condition occurs at birth and in the first year of life. A baby younger than 6 years is treated using a Pavlik harness. If this fails, the condition is managed via surgery. Surgical options include open reduction or closed reduction, after which the hip and leg are placed in a cast for at least 12 weeks. A child who is 18 months or older is managed by pelvic or femoral osteotomy to reconstruct their hip.

Achilles Tendon Rupture

This is a complete tear through the tendon, usually about two inches from the calcaneal (heel) bone. The tendon it vital to activities like jumping, walking or running. The rupture is common in those suffering from Achilles tendinitis, illnesses like diabetes or on drugs like steroids and antibiotics. Surgery is essential for faster healing. However, a cast can be used to allow the leg heal naturally but will take quite long.

Ankle Fracture Treatment

Ankle fractures can be treated surgically or non-surgically. The method will depend on the degree of injury and the patient’s choice. The non-surgical options include casting and splinting.

Limb Amputation

This is the removal of a limb by surgery, medical or trauma. As a surgical measure, it is used to control a disease process affected limb like gangrene and malignancy or to control pain. It may also be carried of prophylactically to prevent these problems.

Bone Fracture Treatment

Treatment depend on the severity of the fracture, patient choice and cost of treatment. Medically, reduction is done to fix a dislocated or Brocken bone. Devices available to fix fracture include orthopedic casts, splints, elastic bandages, and traction splint. Therapeutic physical therapy and joint manipulation can be done. Surgery included internal and external fixation.

Clubfoot Treatment

Club foot is also known as congenital talipes equinovarus. It is a combination of four thing in one i.e. cavus, adductus, varus and equinus. There are several types of clubfoot. It is a highly disabling condition if not managed early. The condition can be managed Non-operatively by Ponseti technique, Kite technique and French technique. Surgical options included: Posteromedial soft tissue release, Osteotomies, Triple arthrodesis, Achilles tenotomy and JESS.

Elbow Replacement

This s a procedure done to replace elbow joint that has been damaged by disease or trauma. It is indicated in severe loss of function, instability, joint destruction, severe pain or deformity. It is successful in relieving people of pain and improving the overall quality of life of the patient.

Knee Ligament Surgery (MCL)

The MCL is one of the four ligaments of the knee. A Knee Ligament Surgery is done to treat torn ligament as a result of injurer. As the MCL surgery is located outside the joint, no surgical key hole are usually necessary. The torn ligament can be reattached with staples, screws and screws through a small incision.

Knee Arthroscopy

These is a surgical procedure that is done to teat or diagnose knee joint problems like injuries and diseases. During the procedure, a small incision is made and an Arthroscope (tiny camera) inserted into the knees therapy allowing the examiner to see the inside of the joint on a live screen.

Ankle Fusion Surgery

Also known as ankle arthrodesis, is a surgical procedure done to fuse the different bones that make up the ankle joint into one piece. It is done when the joint become painful and worn out due to disease or previous trauma.

Ankle Replacement

The procedure is also known as total ankle arthroplasty. It is an orthopedic procedure done to replace the ankle joint articular surfaces that have been damaged by disease or injury with prosthetic components. It is done to treat ankle arthritis.

Artificial Limb Services

These services are provided to patient whose limb have been amputated so that they are able to walk again and improve their quality of life. The patient’s needs will be assessed on an individual basis and a variety of prosthetic equipment make available to support ones upper and lower limbs. Rehabilitative service are provided try a dedicated team of specialists.

Abscess Debridement

Abscess is by infectious process that features collection of pus that is surrounded by inflamed tissue. The Debridement entails incision and drainage of the lesion followed by packing then proper dressing of the wound. The patient is then made to undergo a course of antibiotics.

Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery 32 procedures

Abdominoplasty

Also known as tummy task is a cosmetic procedure that is done to make the abdomen firm and thinner. It involves the removal of excess skin and fat from the lower and middle abdomen to tighten the fascia and muscles of the wall of the abdomen. The procedure is sought after by patient with sagging or loose tissue, especially after marked weight loss or pregnancy. Types of Abdominoplasty available include high lateral tummy tuck, floating Abdominoplasty, circumferential Abdominoplasty, extended or partial or complete Abdominoplasty and combined procedure, e.g., with liposuction.

Breast Implants

It is a prosthesis (saline or silicon) used to change the shape, contour, and size of one's breast. It adds volume to ones existing breast thereby creating a fuller chest. They are used in plastic and reconstructive surgeries to rectify congenital problems, restore natural breast mound after mastectomy or cosmetically in breast argumentation procedures.

Breast Lift

Also known as mastopexy .it is a plastic surgery mammoplasty procedure used for raising sagging breast tissue on a lady’s chest by modifying and changing the contour, the elevation, and size of the breasts. Done by women whose breast have changed due to breastfeeding, pregnancy, gravity, aging, heredity and weight fluctuations. The procedure helps rejuvenate one's figure by creating a rest profile that is uplifted and more youthful.

Arm Lift

Also known as Brachioplasty, is a procedure to provided increased contour and reshape the upper arms and at the same time connect the area to the chest wall. Techniques for Brachioplasty included minimal incision Brachioplasty, liposuction of the arm, traditional Brachioplasty, fish-incision Brachioplasty, extended Brachioplasty, superficial fascial system suspension, use of molds and non-excisional Brachioplasty.

Body Lift

This is a plastic surgery procedure done on patients with excess fat, tissues, and fat that linger after a significant weight loss. Depending on the position of the excess skin, patients can choose to undergo lower, mid or upper body lift.

Breast Reconstruction

This is a plastic surgical technique that tries to restore the breasts to a near-normal appearance, size, and shapes following a mastectomy.

Chin Augmentation

This is a surgical procedure that involves the reduction than the addition of surgical implants in a patients chin. The procedure can take the form of argumentation of chins using implants or chin height reduction or rounding of the chin by osteotomy.

Dimple Creation Surgery

This is a minimally invasive cosmetic procedure that is done to create a dimple. A dimple is a natural indentation that is usually small and circular in the sacral, chin, or cheek region. Natural dimples on the cheek are the small opening on the buccinators muscle. It gives one a great looking smile.

Jaw Shaping

This is a cosmetic procedure done to correct a patient’s jawline. It is commonly done on patients suffering from bruxism or patient who presents with a complaint of having rectangular or square jawlines thus making one's facial structure to look squarish. Treatment involves Botox injection. Jaw reduction surgeries are available.

Otoplasty

This is a surgical or non-surgical procedure that is done to correct the defects and deformities of the pinna, reconstructed deformed, absent or defective external ear, and consequent to traumatic or congenital conditions.

Rhinoplasty

This is a surgical (plastic and reconstructive) procedure for correcting and reconstructing the nose. It aesthetically improves the nose by resolving congenital disabilities, nasal trauma, a failed primary rhinoplasty, or respiratory impediments and restored nasal functions.

Varicose Veins Treatment

Varicose Veins are enlarged and gnarled vein that appears commonly in the feet and legs. Treatment usually helps though the condition is incurable. Treatment involves using devices like compressing stocking and elastic bandage. Weight loss and physical exercise also help. Medical procedures included sclerothrapy, ambulatory phabectomy, and laser therapy and radiofrequency ablation. Surgery involves vein stripping.

Belt Lipectomy

This is a surgical procedure that is done to reshape a patient’s buttocks, thighs, hips and abdomen. The procedure is actually an extension of the high lateral tension tummy tuck, a concept that Ted Lockwood developed.

Perineoplasty

This is a plastic surgical procedure that is done to correct clinical conditions (defect, deformity, damage) of the anus and the vagina. The procedure helps to resolve intraoital stenosis, decreased sexual stimulation, vaginismus, damaged perineum, genital warts, dyspareunia, vaginal loosening, vaginal itchiness, and vulvar vestibulitis.

Tummy Tuck or Abdominal Wall Surgery

Abdominal wall surgery is a procedure that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. It is also called a tummy tuck. It can range from a simple mini-tummy tuck to more extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which is another way to remove fat. But, abdominal wall surgery is sometimes combined with liposuction. Your surgery will be done in an operating room in a hospital. You will receive general anesthesia. This will keep you asleep and pain-free during the procedure. The surgery takes 2 to 6 hours. You can expect to stay in the hospital for 1 to 3 days after surgery.

Breast Augmentation

Breast augmentation is a procedure to enlarge or change the shape of the breasts. Breast augmentation is done by placing implants behind breast tissue or under the chest muscle. An implant is a sac filled with either sterile salt water (saline) or a material called silicone.

Abdominoplasty

Also known as tummy task is a cosmetic procedure that is done to make the abdomen firm and thinner. It involves the removal of excess skin and fat from the lower and middle abdomen to tighten the fascia and muscles of the wall of the abdomen. The procedure is sought after by patient with sagging or loose tissue, especially after marked weight loss or pregnancy. Types of Abdominoplasty available include high lateral tummy tuck, floating Abdominoplasty, circumferential Abdominoplasty, extended or partial or complete Abdominoplasty and combined procedure, e.g., with liposuction.

Breast Implants

It is a prosthesis (saline or silicon) used to change the shape, contour, and size of one's breast. It adds volume to ones existing breast thereby creating a fuller chest. They are used in plastic and reconstructive surgeries to rectify congenital problems, restore natural breast mound after mastectomy or cosmetically in breast argumentation procedures.

Breast Lift

Also known as mastopexy .it is a plastic surgery mammoplasty procedure used for raising sagging breast tissue on a lady’s chest by modifying and changing the contour, the elevation, and size of the breasts. Done by women whose breast have changed due to breastfeeding, pregnancy, gravity, aging, heredity and weight fluctuations. The procedure helps rejuvenate one's figure by creating a rest profile that is uplifted and more youthful.

Arm Lift

Also known as Brachioplasty, is a procedure to provided increased contour and reshape the upper arms and at the same time connect the area to the chest wall. Techniques for Brachioplasty included minimal incision Brachioplasty, liposuction of the arm, traditional Brachioplasty, fish-incision Brachioplasty, extended Brachioplasty, superficial fascial system suspension, use of molds and non-excisional Brachioplasty.

Body Lift

This is a plastic surgery procedure done on patients with excess fat, tissues, and fat that linger after a significant weight loss. Depending on the position of the excess skin, patients can choose to undergo lower, mid or upper body lift.

Breast Reconstruction

This is a plastic surgical technique that tries to restore the breasts to a near-normal appearance, size, and shapes following a mastectomy.

Chin Augmentation

This is a surgical procedure that involves the reduction than the addition of surgical implants in a patients chin. The procedure can take the form of argumentation of chins using implants or chin height reduction or rounding of the chin by osteotomy.

Dimple Creation Surgery

This is a minimally invasive cosmetic procedure that is done to create a dimple. A dimple is a natural indentation that is usually small and circular in the sacral, chin, or cheek region. Natural dimples on the cheek are the small opening on the buccinators muscle. It gives one a great looking smile.

Jaw Shaping

This is a cosmetic procedure done to correct a patient’s jawline. It is commonly done on patients suffering from bruxism or patient who presents with a complaint of having rectangular or square jawlines thus making one's facial structure to look squarish. Treatment involves Botox injection. Jaw reduction surgeries are available.

Otoplasty

This is a surgical or non-surgical procedure that is done to correct the defects and deformities of the pinna, reconstructed deformed, absent or defective external ear, and consequent to traumatic or congenital conditions.

Rhinoplasty

This is a surgical (plastic and reconstructive) procedure for correcting and reconstructing the nose. It aesthetically improves the nose by resolving congenital disabilities, nasal trauma, a failed primary rhinoplasty, or respiratory impediments and restored nasal functions.

Varicose Veins Treatment

Varicose Veins are enlarged and gnarled vein that appears commonly in the feet and legs. Treatment usually helps though the condition is incurable. Treatment involves using devices like compressing stocking and elastic bandage. Weight loss and physical exercise also help. Medical procedures included sclerothrapy, ambulatory phabectomy, and laser therapy and radiofrequency ablation. Surgery involves vein stripping.

Belt Lipectomy

This is a surgical procedure that is done to reshape a patient’s buttocks, thighs, hips and abdomen. The procedure is actually an extension of the high lateral tension tummy tuck, a concept that Ted Lockwood developed.

Perineoplasty

This is a plastic surgical procedure that is done to correct clinical conditions (defect, deformity, damage) of the anus and the vagina. The procedure helps to resolve intraoital stenosis, decreased sexual stimulation, vaginismus, damaged perineum, genital warts, dyspareunia, vaginal loosening, vaginal itchiness, and vulvar vestibulitis.

Tummy Tuck or Abdominal Wall Surgery

Abdominal wall surgery is a procedure that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. It is also called a tummy tuck. It can range from a simple mini-tummy tuck to more extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which is another way to remove fat. But, abdominal wall surgery is sometimes combined with liposuction. Your surgery will be done in an operating room in a hospital. You will receive general anesthesia. This will keep you asleep and pain-free during the procedure. The surgery takes 2 to 6 hours. You can expect to stay in the hospital for 1 to 3 days after surgery.

Breast Augmentation

Breast augmentation is a procedure to enlarge or change the shape of the breasts. Breast augmentation is done by placing implants behind breast tissue or under the chest muscle. An implant is a sac filled with either sterile salt water (saline) or a material called silicone.

Spinal Surgery 28 procedures

Artificial Disc Replacement

Sometimes also called total disc replacement or total disc arthroplasty. The procedure involves replacing a painful damaged disc with an artificial disc. The procedure can be performed on the neck (cervical spine) or lumbar spine (lower back). The procedure helps preserve motion in the intervertebral discs. It is performed in patients with damaged discs, e.g., due to disease or cervical disc herniation unresponsive to non-surgical management.

Cervical Disc Disease Treatment

The treatment of cervical disc diseases begins when your doctor takes a good history, carries out a physical examination and then order appropriate investigations. The investigations of choice of choice are CT, MRI, and X-rays that will help your doctor localize the problem. Based on this the doctor will decide whether to use the surgical or nonsurgical option. Non-surgical modalities include lifestyle modification, physiotherapy, and analgesia and heat therapy. Surgical option helps one heal fast and include cervical artificial disc replacement and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (available in India).

Laminectomy

This is a surgical procedure used to remove areas of the vertebral bones called lamina. Muscles of the back are pushed sideways during the procedure rather than cut and sections of the vertebra adjacent to the lamina left intact. It’s sometimes referred to as decompression surgery. It helps relieve purser on the spinal nerves and spinal cord. Commonly done to manage spinal stenosis.

Spine Surgery

This is a surgery done on the spine to treat back pain, or other damages are done on the spine by trauma or disease scoliosis, spinal stenosis, and disc herniation. It is recommended when conservative treatments are unsuccessful. It can either be done as an open or minimally invasive procedure. Common surgical approaches are lateral, posterior and anterior. Spinal surgical techniques included laminotomy, laminectomy, microdiscectomy, disc replacement, spinal fusion, and foraminotomy.

Corpectomy

This is a surgical operation that involves removing part or all a vertebral body usually as a mean of decompressing the nerves and spinal cord. It is sometimes performed in association with discectomy. It is commonly done in a patient with spinal stenosis due to osteophytes.

Kyphoplasty

This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure sued to treat the compression of the spine following a fracture. The spinal compression fractures usually occur majorly in spinal vertebral bones weakened by osteoporosis. It helps relieve pain and correct deformities.

Foraminotomy

This is a medical procedure done to relieve pressure applied to nerves that are being compressed by intervertebral foramina. Intervertebral foramina is a passage of the vertebral bone through which nerves bundles pass to the body from the spinal cord. It is performed via a minimally invasive operation where a cut is made in the back then the muscles pushed on to the sides to create a way. The surgeon will then drills a small hole in the vertebral bone.

Cervical Spondylosis Treatment

The management of this condition involves rehabilitative programs like occupational therapy, physical therapy, and recreational therapy. Surgery is advised when neurologic deficits progress, when there is documented spinal cord or cervical nerve root compression and when the pain becomes intractable.

Scoliosis Surgery

Scoliosis is a condition where ones spine bend LATERALLY (sideways). It arises commonly before pubertal growth spurts.it can be caused by muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy or idiopathic. Surgical OPTIONS include scoliosis fusion surgery and anterior scoliosis corrective surgery (VBT).

Spinal Disc Herniation Treatment (slipped disc)

This condition can be managed medically or surgically. Pain is managed using NSAIDs and therapies like physical therapy, stretching and chiropractic techniques are useful. Medical procedures included epidural steroid injection and therapeutic ultrasound. Spine surgery is the definitive management.

Scoliosis Treatment

Scoliosis is a condition where ones spine bend LATERALLY (sideways). It arises commonly before pubertal growth spurts. It can be caused by muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy or idiopathic. Surgery is the main modality of treatment. Surgical options include scoliosis fusion surgery and anterior scoliosis corrective surgery (VBT).

Spinal Fusion Surgery

Sometimes also called spondylosyndesis or spondylodesis. It is an operation done to stop motion in segments of the spine (thoracic, lumber or cervical) that are causing a patient pain. It helps to stabilizes and decompress the spine. The procedure involves the use of bone grafts which can either be allografts, autografts or artificial substitutes.

Nucleoplasty

This is a minimally invasive procedure (sometimes referred to as percutaneous discectomy) used to treat patient suffering from problem caused by herniated discs such as leg pain and low back pain. It is performed by an interventional radiologist.

Lumbar Microdiscectomy Surgery

A lumbar microdiscectomy surgery is performed to remove the portion of a herniated disc that is irritating or inflaming the nerve root. A microdiscectomy is performed through a small incision in the midline of the low back. First, the back muscles, called erector spinae, are lifted off the bony arch, called the lamina, of the spine. Since these back muscles run vertically, they can be moved out of the way rather than cut. The surgeon is then able to enter the spine by removing a membrane over the nerve roots. This membrane is called the ligamentum flavum. Often, a small portion of the inside facet joint is removed both to facilitate access to the nerve root and to relieve pressure over the nerve. The nerve root is then gently moved to the side and the disc material is removed from under the nerve root. Only the herniated portion of the disc is removed; the healthy portion of the disc is left intact. After the piece of the disc that is irritating or inflaming the nerve root has been removed, the pressure is off the nerve immediately and it has room to heal. A herniated disc pressing on a nerve root can cause severe leg pain. While it may take weeks or months for the nerve root to fully heal and any numbness or weakness to get better, patients normally feel relief from the leg pain almost immediately after a microdiscectomy.

Artificial Disc Replacement

Sometimes also called total disc replacement or total disc arthroplasty. The procedure involves replacing a painful damaged disc with an artificial disc. The procedure can be performed on the neck (cervical spine) or lumbar spine (lower back). The procedure helps preserve motion in the intervertebral discs. It is performed in patients with damaged discs, e.g., due to disease or cervical disc herniation unresponsive to non-surgical management.

Cervical Disc Disease Treatment

The treatment of cervical disc diseases begins when your doctor takes a good history, carries out a physical examination and then order appropriate investigations. The investigations of choice of choice are CT, MRI, and X-rays that will help your doctor localize the problem. Based on this the doctor will decide whether to use the surgical or nonsurgical option. Non-surgical modalities include lifestyle modification, physiotherapy, and analgesia and heat therapy. Surgical option helps one heal fast and include cervical artificial disc replacement and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (available in India).

Laminectomy

This is a surgical procedure used to remove areas of the vertebral bones called lamina. Muscles of the back are pushed sideways during the procedure rather than cut and sections of the vertebra adjacent to the lamina left intact. It’s sometimes referred to as decompression surgery. It helps relieve purser on the spinal nerves and spinal cord. Commonly done to manage spinal stenosis.

Spine Surgery

This is a surgery done on the spine to treat back pain, or other damages are done on the spine by trauma or disease scoliosis, spinal stenosis, and disc herniation. It is recommended when conservative treatments are unsuccessful. It can either be done as an open or minimally invasive procedure. Common surgical approaches are lateral, posterior and anterior. Spinal surgical techniques included laminotomy, laminectomy, microdiscectomy, disc replacement, spinal fusion, and foraminotomy.

Corpectomy

This is a surgical operation that involves removing part or all a vertebral body usually as a mean of decompressing the nerves and spinal cord. It is sometimes performed in association with discectomy. It is commonly done in a patient with spinal stenosis due to osteophytes.

Kyphoplasty

This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure sued to treat the compression of the spine following a fracture. The spinal compression fractures usually occur majorly in spinal vertebral bones weakened by osteoporosis. It helps relieve pain and correct deformities.

Foraminotomy

This is a medical procedure done to relieve pressure applied to nerves that are being compressed by intervertebral foramina. Intervertebral foramina is a passage of the vertebral bone through which nerves bundles pass to the body from the spinal cord. It is performed via a minimally invasive operation where a cut is made in the back then the muscles pushed on to the sides to create a way. The surgeon will then drills a small hole in the vertebral bone.

Cervical Spondylosis Treatment

The management of this condition involves rehabilitative programs like occupational therapy, physical therapy, and recreational therapy. Surgery is advised when neurologic deficits progress, when there is documented spinal cord or cervical nerve root compression and when the pain becomes intractable.

Scoliosis Surgery

Scoliosis is a condition where ones spine bend LATERALLY (sideways). It arises commonly before pubertal growth spurts.it can be caused by muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy or idiopathic. Surgical OPTIONS include scoliosis fusion surgery and anterior scoliosis corrective surgery (VBT).

Spinal Disc Herniation Treatment (slipped disc)

This condition can be managed medically or surgically. Pain is managed using NSAIDs and therapies like physical therapy, stretching and chiropractic techniques are useful. Medical procedures included epidural steroid injection and therapeutic ultrasound. Spine surgery is the definitive management.

Scoliosis Treatment

Scoliosis is a condition where ones spine bend LATERALLY (sideways). It arises commonly before pubertal growth spurts. It can be caused by muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy or idiopathic. Surgery is the main modality of treatment. Surgical options include scoliosis fusion surgery and anterior scoliosis corrective surgery (VBT).

Spinal Fusion Surgery

Sometimes also called spondylosyndesis or spondylodesis. It is an operation done to stop motion in segments of the spine (thoracic, lumber or cervical) that are causing a patient pain. It helps to stabilizes and decompress the spine. The procedure involves the use of bone grafts which can either be allografts, autografts or artificial substitutes.

Nucleoplasty

This is a minimally invasive procedure (sometimes referred to as percutaneous discectomy) used to treat patient suffering from problem caused by herniated discs such as leg pain and low back pain. It is performed by an interventional radiologist.

Lumbar Microdiscectomy Surgery

A lumbar microdiscectomy surgery is performed to remove the portion of a herniated disc that is irritating or inflaming the nerve root. A microdiscectomy is performed through a small incision in the midline of the low back. First, the back muscles, called erector spinae, are lifted off the bony arch, called the lamina, of the spine. Since these back muscles run vertically, they can be moved out of the way rather than cut. The surgeon is then able to enter the spine by removing a membrane over the nerve roots. This membrane is called the ligamentum flavum. Often, a small portion of the inside facet joint is removed both to facilitate access to the nerve root and to relieve pressure over the nerve. The nerve root is then gently moved to the side and the disc material is removed from under the nerve root. Only the herniated portion of the disc is removed; the healthy portion of the disc is left intact. After the piece of the disc that is irritating or inflaming the nerve root has been removed, the pressure is off the nerve immediately and it has room to heal. A herniated disc pressing on a nerve root can cause severe leg pain. While it may take weeks or months for the nerve root to fully heal and any numbness or weakness to get better, patients normally feel relief from the leg pain almost immediately after a microdiscectomy.

Urology 26 procedures

Bladder Neck Incision (BNI)

This is a procedure done on men experiencing difficulty passing urine due to benign prostatic enlargement or urinary tract obstruction from a tight prostate. The patient usually presents with frequency, urgency, urine dribbling, hesitancy, poor urine stream and incomplete emptying of the balder. The operation helps relieve these symptoms of obstruction.

Prostatectomy

This is a surgical procedure that removes part or whole of the prostate gland. It is usually used in the treatment of benign prostatic enlargement (BPH), or prostate canacer.it can be performed in several ways. For prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy is recommended. The current technique for performing this include open radical prostatectomy (retropubic or transvesical), laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. For benign enlarged prostate, simple prostatectomy is recommended. Newer techniques for managing BPH include transurethral resection of the prostate, transurethral laser-induced prostatectomy and Trans-urethral incision of the prostate. Noninvasive techniques include cryotherapy, laser therapy, thermal ablation and balloon dilation.

Pyeloplasty

This is a surgical revision or reconstruction procedure of renal pelvis to decompress or drain the kidneys.it is performed to manage ureteropelvic junction obstructions provided the residual renal function is still adequate. Congenital hydronephrosis is its most common presentation in pediatrics.

Circumcision

This is the removal of the penile foreskin. It is the most commonly performed procedure in the world. In it, the foreskin is opened. Then adhesions removed before being separated from the glans and cut. The penis is then sutured. A recent study indicated that it lowers one's risk of contracting HIV by60%.

Cystectomy

This is the surgical removal of part or whole (radical) of the urinary bladder. Sometimes the term is used to refer to the removal of the gallbladder or a cyst. This is commonly performed after a diagnosis of bladder cancer.

Erectile Dysfunction Treatment

Erectile Dysfunction is the inability of a man to keep or get an erection firm to have sexual intercourse. It is commonly described as important. The condition can be managed medically. 1st the patient has to be evaluated for a treatment plan is made, the plan may incorporate assistive devices like pumps or medications.

Bladder Stone Removal

This is a procedure done to remove renal stones that have formed in the bladder or pound their way into the bladder hence causing obstruction and pain. Various procedures are used to remove the stones, e.g., percutaneous suprapubic crystolitholapaxy and open cystostomy.

Cystoscopy

This is the endoscopic examination of the bladder. During the procedure, an endoscopic tube with a light and camera at the end is inserted into one's urethra, and into your bladder to visualize the inside of the bladder.

Kidney Stones Treatment

The treatment of renal stones included taking a lot of water to help pass these stones and use of painkiller to relive renal colonic pain. Drug used included NSAIDs, diuretics narcotics and urinary retention drugs. Medical procedures that can be done to remove the stones include laser lithotripsy, uteroscopic stone removal and extracorporeal shockwave therapy.

Prostate Biopsy

This is a procedure done to take a sample from the prostate for histological analysis. It is dome to detect or diagnose cancer of the prostate especially after blood PSA level; rises to the level of prostate cancer. There are several options that can be used to take the sample i.e. MRI-guided biopsy, ultrasound guided biopsy, Transrectal biopsy and transurethral biopsy.

TURP (Transurethral Resection of Prostate)

Transurethral Resection of Prostate is a surgery to remove the inside part of the prostate gland. It is done in order to treat symptoms of an enlarged prostate. The surgery takes about 1 hour. You will be given medicine before surgery so you don't feel pain. You may get general anesthesia in which you are asleep and pain-free or spinal anesthesia in which you are awake, but relaxed and pain-free. The surgeon will insert a scope through the tube that carries urine from your bladder out of the penis. This tube is called the urethra. A special cutting tool is placed through the scope. It is used to remove the inside part of your prostate gland using electricity.

Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL - Kidney Stone Removal)

Percutaneous (through the skin) urinary procedures help drain urine from your bladder and get rid of kidney stones. A percutaneous nephrostomy is the placement of a small, flexible rubber tube (catheter) through your skin into your kidney to drain your urine. It is inserted through your back or flank. Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (or nephrolithotomy) is the passing of a special medical instrument through your skin into your kidney. This is done to remove kidney stones.

Ureteroscopy (URS)

Ureteroscopy (URS) is a form of minimally invasive surgery using a small telescope that is passed through the urethra and into the ureter to remove a stone. Often the stone requires fragmentation with a laser which then allows the smaller fragments to removed with a grasping device.

Bladder Neck Incision (BNI)

This is a procedure done on men experiencing difficulty passing urine due to benign prostatic enlargement or urinary tract obstruction from a tight prostate. The patient usually presents with frequency, urgency, urine dribbling, hesitancy, poor urine stream and incomplete emptying of the balder. The operation helps relieve these symptoms of obstruction.

Prostatectomy

This is a surgical procedure that removes part or whole of the prostate gland. It is usually used in the treatment of benign prostatic enlargement (BPH), or prostate canacer.it can be performed in several ways. For prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy is recommended. The current technique for performing this include open radical prostatectomy (retropubic or transvesical), laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. For benign enlarged prostate, simple prostatectomy is recommended. Newer techniques for managing BPH include transurethral resection of the prostate, transurethral laser-induced prostatectomy and Trans-urethral incision of the prostate. Noninvasive techniques include cryotherapy, laser therapy, thermal ablation and balloon dilation.

Pyeloplasty

This is a surgical revision or reconstruction procedure of renal pelvis to decompress or drain the kidneys.it is performed to manage ureteropelvic junction obstructions provided the residual renal function is still adequate. Congenital hydronephrosis is its most common presentation in pediatrics.

Circumcision

This is the removal of the penile foreskin. It is the most commonly performed procedure in the world. In it, the foreskin is opened. Then adhesions removed before being separated from the glans and cut. The penis is then sutured. A recent study indicated that it lowers one's risk of contracting HIV by60%.

Cystectomy

This is the surgical removal of part or whole (radical) of the urinary bladder. Sometimes the term is used to refer to the removal of the gallbladder or a cyst. This is commonly performed after a diagnosis of bladder cancer.

Erectile Dysfunction Treatment

Erectile Dysfunction is the inability of a man to keep or get an erection firm to have sexual intercourse. It is commonly described as important. The condition can be managed medically. 1st the patient has to be evaluated for a treatment plan is made, the plan may incorporate assistive devices like pumps or medications.

Bladder Stone Removal

This is a procedure done to remove renal stones that have formed in the bladder or pound their way into the bladder hence causing obstruction and pain. Various procedures are used to remove the stones, e.g., percutaneous suprapubic crystolitholapaxy and open cystostomy.

Cystoscopy

This is the endoscopic examination of the bladder. During the procedure, an endoscopic tube with a light and camera at the end is inserted into one's urethra, and into your bladder to visualize the inside of the bladder.

Kidney Stones Treatment

The treatment of renal stones included taking a lot of water to help pass these stones and use of painkiller to relive renal colonic pain. Drug used included NSAIDs, diuretics narcotics and urinary retention drugs. Medical procedures that can be done to remove the stones include laser lithotripsy, uteroscopic stone removal and extracorporeal shockwave therapy.

Prostate Biopsy

This is a procedure done to take a sample from the prostate for histological analysis. It is dome to detect or diagnose cancer of the prostate especially after blood PSA level; rises to the level of prostate cancer. There are several options that can be used to take the sample i.e. MRI-guided biopsy, ultrasound guided biopsy, Transrectal biopsy and transurethral biopsy.

TURP (Transurethral Resection of Prostate)

Transurethral Resection of Prostate is a surgery to remove the inside part of the prostate gland. It is done in order to treat symptoms of an enlarged prostate. The surgery takes about 1 hour. You will be given medicine before surgery so you don't feel pain. You may get general anesthesia in which you are asleep and pain-free or spinal anesthesia in which you are awake, but relaxed and pain-free. The surgeon will insert a scope through the tube that carries urine from your bladder out of the penis. This tube is called the urethra. A special cutting tool is placed through the scope. It is used to remove the inside part of your prostate gland using electricity.

Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL - Kidney Stone Removal)

Percutaneous (through the skin) urinary procedures help drain urine from your bladder and get rid of kidney stones. A percutaneous nephrostomy is the placement of a small, flexible rubber tube (catheter) through your skin into your kidney to drain your urine. It is inserted through your back or flank. Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (or nephrolithotomy) is the passing of a special medical instrument through your skin into your kidney. This is done to remove kidney stones.

Ureteroscopy (URS)

Ureteroscopy (URS) is a form of minimally invasive surgery using a small telescope that is passed through the urethra and into the ureter to remove a stone. Often the stone requires fragmentation with a laser which then allows the smaller fragments to removed with a grasping device.

Colorectal Medicine 12 procedures

Colectomy

This is the resection of whole or part of the large bowel. It is usually necessary to prevent or manage conditions and disease that affect one's colon such as ulcerative colitis, Cohn’s disease, colorectal carcinoma and HNPCC. It can be either laparoscopic or open.

Anal Abscess Drainage

An abscess is an infectious condition characterized by a pus collection surrounded by tissue inflammation. An Anal Abscess forms around the one's anus. It usually starts in the perianal hair follicles or mucus gland. It is managed by incision and drainage of the abscess.

Anal Fissure Treatment

This is a crack or linear tear in the distal areas of the anal canal. They involve only the epithelium in the short-term, and the entire mucosal thickens in the long-run. 1st line of treatment is medical and involve stool softeners and stool bulking agents. A laxative is also used to maintain normal bowel movements. 2nd line of treatment is surgical where sphincterotomy is done.

Anal Fistula Surgery

An anal fistula is an abnormal connection between the epithelized surface of the anal canal and the perianal skin. It is usually a sequela of an anal abscess. It rarely heals on it own hence need for surgery. The surgery is carried out under GA. There are several surgical options available, i.e., fistulotomy, advancement flap procedure, Seton technique, LIFT procedure, fibrin glue and bioprosthetic plug.

Hemorrhoidectomy

This is a surgical procedure done to treat hemorrhoids. Patient is given either spinal or general anesthesia and then incisions are made around the hemorrhoid tissue. The swollen veins are then used to prevent bleeding and the entire hemorrhoid removed.

Rectocele Surgery

Rectocele is a posterior vaginal wall prolapse that occurs when the wall that separates the rectum from the vagina weakens thus allowing the vaginal wall to bulge. It can be managed conservatively by physiotherapy and using vaginal pessaries. Surgical options included colporrrhaphy and rectocele repair. Surgery is the definitive management of this condition.

Colectomy

This is the resection of whole or part of the large bowel. It is usually necessary to prevent or manage conditions and disease that affect one's colon such as ulcerative colitis, Cohn’s disease, colorectal carcinoma and HNPCC. It can be either laparoscopic or open.

Anal Abscess Drainage

An abscess is an infectious condition characterized by a pus collection surrounded by tissue inflammation. An Anal Abscess forms around the one's anus. It usually starts in the perianal hair follicles or mucus gland. It is managed by incision and drainage of the abscess.

Anal Fissure Treatment

This is a crack or linear tear in the distal areas of the anal canal. They involve only the epithelium in the short-term, and the entire mucosal thickens in the long-run. 1st line of treatment is medical and involve stool softeners and stool bulking agents. A laxative is also used to maintain normal bowel movements. 2nd line of treatment is surgical where sphincterotomy is done.

Anal Fistula Surgery

An anal fistula is an abnormal connection between the epithelized surface of the anal canal and the perianal skin. It is usually a sequela of an anal abscess. It rarely heals on it own hence need for surgery. The surgery is carried out under GA. There are several surgical options available, i.e., fistulotomy, advancement flap procedure, Seton technique, LIFT procedure, fibrin glue and bioprosthetic plug.

Hemorrhoidectomy

This is a surgical procedure done to treat hemorrhoids. Patient is given either spinal or general anesthesia and then incisions are made around the hemorrhoid tissue. The swollen veins are then used to prevent bleeding and the entire hemorrhoid removed.

Rectocele Surgery

Rectocele is a posterior vaginal wall prolapse that occurs when the wall that separates the rectum from the vagina weakens thus allowing the vaginal wall to bulge. It can be managed conservatively by physiotherapy and using vaginal pessaries. Surgical options included colporrrhaphy and rectocele repair. Surgery is the definitive management of this condition.

General Medicine 16 procedures

Hyperbaric Medicine

It is a treatment modality in which the ambient pressure gradient greater than the atmospheric sea pressure is used. It comprises therapeutic recompression (used to manage depression illnesses like air emboli) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

Medical Examination

This is the process by which physicians assess the body of a patient for sings disease. In medical practice, it is terms used commonly to refer to is included a clinical examination or physical examination. It is done after a comprehensive history of a patient has been taken. It thus helps in diagnosis and formulating the treatment plan.

Abdominal Examination

This is the physical examination of the abdomen to identify signs of disease; it is done in four stages, i.e., inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation.

Female Health Checkup

This is a gynecological procedure used to assess the female reproductive system. It involved a physical exam of the female perineum and possibly a specular exam, Apart from this various imaging and laboratory tests can be ordered to help the doctor make a proper conclusion.

General Medicine Consultation

This is a visit to a physician or general medical practitioner. The doctor will take the patient history and carry out a physical exam of all systems after which proper investigations are done and a treatment plan formulated.

Cryosurgery

This is the use of extremely cold temperatures (by liquid nitrogen) in surgery to destroy diseased or abnormal tissue, i.e., it is the use of cryoablation in surgery. It is commonly used to get rid of skin tags, Morton’s neuroma, small skin cancers, moles, and warts.

Deep Wound Treatment

A deep wound is one that cuts deeper than a quarter an inch beneath the skin surface. Due to their depth, this wound is likely to involve damage to tendons, major blood vessels, ligaments or internal organs. This can lead to both external and internal bleeding. These wounds require urgent treatment to avoid complications like shock. The bleeding has to be arrested, then cl4ned and properly dressed. Antibiotics and tetanus vaccine must be administered to the patient.

Vaccination

This is the administration of a vaccine to a person to stimulate their immune system thereby developing adaptive immunity against the target pathogen.

Hyperbaric Medicine

It is a treatment modality in which the ambient pressure gradient greater than the atmospheric sea pressure is used. It comprises therapeutic recompression (used to manage depression illnesses like air emboli) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

Medical Examination

This is the process by which physicians assess the body of a patient for sings disease. In medical practice, it is terms used commonly to refer to is included a clinical examination or physical examination. It is done after a comprehensive history of a patient has been taken. It thus helps in diagnosis and formulating the treatment plan.

Abdominal Examination

This is the physical examination of the abdomen to identify signs of disease; it is done in four stages, i.e., inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation.

Female Health Checkup

This is a gynecological procedure used to assess the female reproductive system. It involved a physical exam of the female perineum and possibly a specular exam, Apart from this various imaging and laboratory tests can be ordered to help the doctor make a proper conclusion.

General Medicine Consultation

This is a visit to a physician or general medical practitioner. The doctor will take the patient history and carry out a physical exam of all systems after which proper investigations are done and a treatment plan formulated.

Cryosurgery

This is the use of extremely cold temperatures (by liquid nitrogen) in surgery to destroy diseased or abnormal tissue, i.e., it is the use of cryoablation in surgery. It is commonly used to get rid of skin tags, Morton’s neuroma, small skin cancers, moles, and warts.

Deep Wound Treatment

A deep wound is one that cuts deeper than a quarter an inch beneath the skin surface. Due to their depth, this wound is likely to involve damage to tendons, major blood vessels, ligaments or internal organs. This can lead to both external and internal bleeding. These wounds require urgent treatment to avoid complications like shock. The bleeding has to be arrested, then cl4ned and properly dressed. Antibiotics and tetanus vaccine must be administered to the patient.

Vaccination

This is the administration of a vaccine to a person to stimulate their immune system thereby developing adaptive immunity against the target pathogen.

Neurology 16 procedures

Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) Treatment

CCSVI is a term used to describe the compromise of blood flow in veins draining the CNS. Failure to treat the condition can, in the long run, predispose one to multiple sclerosis. It is commonly diagnosed using a Trans-cranial Doppler ultrasound, an MRI scan or Doppler sonography. It can be managed by a surgical procedure known as venous angioplasty where a surgeon will insert a balloon to keep veins open, clear a blockage & restore blood flow to spinal cord and brain.

Parkinson's Disease Treatment

The disease is only diagnosed after a proper history then physical and neurological exam. Imaging scans are not diagnostic by only help rule out other disorders. The disease is not curable but can be controlled using drugs like carbidopa-levodopa, dopamine, MAO-B inhibitors and, COMP inhibitors, anticholinergic and amantadine. When surgery is advisee, deep brain stimulation can be done.

Alzheimer's Disease Consultation

This is the evaluation of a patient suffering from dementia and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. The doctor will assess the patient and prepares an appropriate treatment plan and inform the guardian on hoe w the patient should be cared for, the prognosis and booking future reviews.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Consultation

This is the evaluation of a patient who has ALS. The doctor will assess the patient and formulate an appropriate treatment plan and inform the guardian on hoe w the patient should be cared for, and advise on of follow up.

Neurological Rehabilitation

This is a physician-supervised program that is designed for patients with trauma, disorders or diseases of the nervous system. The program improves one's functions, reduce symptoms and greatly improve the overall well-being of a patient.

Dementia Management

Dementia is the overall term used to describe a range of clinical conditions that are associated with the decline in one’s memory or thinking skills to the extent that one is unable to perform his/her normal daily life activities. The treatment if Dementia depends on its cause. Once the cause is determined, the condition will improve once the cause is properly managed.

Migraine Treatment

This is a headache of that varies in intensity and is often accompanied by sound and light sensitivity and nausea. The condition can be managed by medications. The drugs can either be pain-relieving or preventive. Pain relieving medications included painkillers, triptans, ergots, anti-nausea drugs, opioids, and glucocorticoids. Preventative medications included cardiovascular drugs, antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, painkillers, and Botox.

Neurology Consultation

This is an appointment with a neurologist (physician that has subspecialized in neurology) for treatment, diagnosis or management of disorders that affect the nervous system.

Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) Treatment

CCSVI is a term used to describe the compromise of blood flow in veins draining the CNS. Failure to treat the condition can, in the long run, predispose one to multiple sclerosis. It is commonly diagnosed using a Trans-cranial Doppler ultrasound, an MRI scan or Doppler sonography. It can be managed by a surgical procedure known as venous angioplasty where a surgeon will insert a balloon to keep veins open, clear a blockage & restore blood flow to spinal cord and brain.

Parkinson's Disease Treatment

The disease is only diagnosed after a proper history then physical and neurological exam. Imaging scans are not diagnostic by only help rule out other disorders. The disease is not curable but can be controlled using drugs like carbidopa-levodopa, dopamine, MAO-B inhibitors and, COMP inhibitors, anticholinergic and amantadine. When surgery is advisee, deep brain stimulation can be done.

Alzheimer's Disease Consultation

This is the evaluation of a patient suffering from dementia and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. The doctor will assess the patient and prepares an appropriate treatment plan and inform the guardian on hoe w the patient should be cared for, the prognosis and booking future reviews.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Consultation

This is the evaluation of a patient who has ALS. The doctor will assess the patient and formulate an appropriate treatment plan and inform the guardian on hoe w the patient should be cared for, and advise on of follow up.

Neurological Rehabilitation

This is a physician-supervised program that is designed for patients with trauma, disorders or diseases of the nervous system. The program improves one's functions, reduce symptoms and greatly improve the overall well-being of a patient.

Dementia Management

Dementia is the overall term used to describe a range of clinical conditions that are associated with the decline in one’s memory or thinking skills to the extent that one is unable to perform his/her normal daily life activities. The treatment if Dementia depends on its cause. Once the cause is determined, the condition will improve once the cause is properly managed.

Migraine Treatment

This is a headache of that varies in intensity and is often accompanied by sound and light sensitivity and nausea. The condition can be managed by medications. The drugs can either be pain-relieving or preventive. Pain relieving medications included painkillers, triptans, ergots, anti-nausea drugs, opioids, and glucocorticoids. Preventative medications included cardiovascular drugs, antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, painkillers, and Botox.

Neurology Consultation

This is an appointment with a neurologist (physician that has subspecialized in neurology) for treatment, diagnosis or management of disorders that affect the nervous system.

Reproductive Medicine 10 procedures

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

This is an assisted reproductive technology that is used to achieve conception. It normally the only means available to achieve pregnancy when fallopian tubes are obstructed/blocked. In it, a woman egg and sperm will be left in a laboratory culture dish to fertilize after which the embryo is placed in the woman’s uterus. It is a complicated technology though useful for couples with infertility.

Blastocyst Transfer

This is a type of assisted reproductive technology where a blastocyst, i.e., a human embryo that is about 5-7 day old is transferred into the female womb after in-vitro fertilization.

Donor Egg IVF

This is the female products of ovulation form a donor (known or unknown) which is to be fertilized by sperms for implantation into an infertile lady or for other reasons the client's eggs cannot be used.

Donor Sperm

These are sperms usually from unknown persons that will be used to inseminate a lady for purposes of procreation artificially. A client lady is sometimes allowed to choose the donor.

Tubal Cannulation

This is a procedure that is done to clear blockages/obstructions in a woman’s fallopian tubes. Tubal obstruction is the most common cause of infertility as the tubes are vulnerable surgical damage or infections. It is done by gynecologist under the guidance of a hysteroscopy.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

This is an assisted reproductive technology that is used to achieve conception. It normally the only means available to achieve pregnancy when fallopian tubes are obstructed/blocked. In it, a woman egg and sperm will be left in a laboratory culture dish to fertilize after which the embryo is placed in the woman’s uterus. It is a complicated technology though useful for couples with infertility.

Blastocyst Transfer

This is a type of assisted reproductive technology where a blastocyst, i.e., a human embryo that is about 5-7 day old is transferred into the female womb after in-vitro fertilization.

Donor Egg IVF

This is the female products of ovulation form a donor (known or unknown) which is to be fertilized by sperms for implantation into an infertile lady or for other reasons the client's eggs cannot be used.

Donor Sperm

These are sperms usually from unknown persons that will be used to inseminate a lady for purposes of procreation artificially. A client lady is sometimes allowed to choose the donor.

Tubal Cannulation

This is a procedure that is done to clear blockages/obstructions in a woman’s fallopian tubes. Tubal obstruction is the most common cause of infertility as the tubes are vulnerable surgical damage or infections. It is done by gynecologist under the guidance of a hysteroscopy.

Nephrology 6 procedures

Nephrology Consultation

This is a hospital checkup and review by a qualified nephrologist. It involves patient assessment, treatment planning, diagnosis and interventions such as permanent catheter insertion. Patients with acute or chronic kidney disease will require a frequent check-up by a nephrologist. The doctor will also monitor patients undergoing dialysis.

Kidney Dialysis

This is a procedure done to manage patients with acute kidney injury or those with end-stage kidney disease. It is needed when one's kidneys are no longer able to meet the body’s needs. It performs normal kidney functions like the removal of wastes. There are two types of dialysis, i.e., peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

Nephrology Consultation

This is a hospital checkup and review by a qualified nephrologist. It involves patient assessment, treatment planning, diagnosis and interventions such as permanent catheter insertion. Patients with acute or chronic kidney disease will require a frequent check-up by a nephrologist. The doctor will also monitor patients undergoing dialysis.

Kidney Dialysis

This is a procedure done to manage patients with acute kidney injury or those with end-stage kidney disease. It is needed when one's kidneys are no longer able to meet the body’s needs. It performs normal kidney functions like the removal of wastes. There are two types of dialysis, i.e., peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

Kidney Transplant (Living Related Donor)

This is the transplant of a healthy kidney to patients with an end-stage renal disease or no functional kidneys. Kidneys are important because they remove wastes and toxins from the body apart from producing important hormones in the body. The kidney can be taken from a live donor or deceased donor. There recipient and donor can be genetically related or non-related depending on whether a biological relationship existed between them. India has very nice centers where this can be done successfully.

Kidney Transplant (ABO Incompatible transplant)

This is the transplant of a healthy kidney to patients with an end-stage renal disease or no functional kidneys. ABO-incompatible (ABOi) transplantation is a method of allocation in organ transplantation that permits more efficient use of available organs regardless of ABO blood type

Dermatology 6 procedures

Acne Treatment

Acne is an inflammatory papular, pustular, and follicular eruptions involving the pilosebaceous units in the skin. It is treated medical using either local or topical agents by a dermatologist. All drugs used for the management of acne act as Anti-inflammatory, Anti-comedonal and Anti-microbial agents.

Dermatology Consultation

This is a visit to a skin specialist. The specialist will take your history and your skin lesions or just the general condition of the skin. The doctor will then prepare a treatment plan for you. A dermatological consult can be for cosmetic reasons or management of pathological skin conditions.

Mole and Skin Lesion Evaluation

This is like dermatological consult aimed at examining moles (benign pigmented lesion o the skin with histologic and clinical picture of malignant melanoma) and other lesion in the skin. This evaluation is important in that potential skin malignancies like malignant melanomas will be captured early and treated.

Acne Treatment

Acne is an inflammatory papular, pustular, and follicular eruptions involving the pilosebaceous units in the skin. It is treated medical using either local or topical agents by a dermatologist. All drugs used for the management of acne act as Anti-inflammatory, Anti-comedonal and Anti-microbial agents.

Dermatology Consultation

This is a visit to a skin specialist. The specialist will take your history and your skin lesions or just the general condition of the skin. The doctor will then prepare a treatment plan for you. A dermatological consult can be for cosmetic reasons or management of pathological skin conditions.

Mole and Skin Lesion Evaluation

This is like dermatological consult aimed at examining moles (benign pigmented lesion o the skin with histologic and clinical picture of malignant melanoma) and other lesion in the skin. This evaluation is important in that potential skin malignancies like malignant melanomas will be captured early and treated.

Hair Restoration 6 procedures

Hair Transplant

This this is a surgical technique that involves moving hair follicles from one area of the body (donor area) to a balding or bald part of the body (recipient area). Commonly used to treat male baldness.

Beard Transplant

This is a method of restoring hair in which the doctor transplants hair, form the beard to the scold using follicular unit extraction (FUE) tools and techniques. It is a popular cosmetic procedure that works for thickening facial hair. The surgeon transplants hair to areas of the client’s face on a case by case basis.

Eyebrow Hair Transplant

This is a procedure that involves moving hair from another part of one’s body and transplanting to the eyebrow area. Hair follicles that are healthy are harvested from the donor site and transferred to create the client’s desired eyebrow

Hair Transplant

This this is a surgical technique that involves moving hair follicles from one area of the body (donor area) to a balding or bald part of the body (recipient area). Commonly used to treat male baldness.

Beard Transplant

This is a method of restoring hair in which the doctor transplants hair, form the beard to the scold using follicular unit extraction (FUE) tools and techniques. It is a popular cosmetic procedure that works for thickening facial hair. The surgeon transplants hair to areas of the client’s face on a case by case basis.

Eyebrow Hair Transplant

This is a procedure that involves moving hair from another part of one’s body and transplanting to the eyebrow area. Hair follicles that are healthy are harvested from the donor site and transferred to create the client’s desired eyebrow

Laboratory Medicine 4 procedures

Blood Tests

These Are tests done on blood samples, i.e., blood work or panel. The blood is usually extracted from a vein in the upper limb using a figure prick or hypodermic needle. It tests for specific components of bold such as cholesterol, glucose tests

Genetic Testing

This is a medical test done to identify changes in proteins, genes or chromosomes. The test result helps to rule out or confirm genetic conditions or determine one's predisposition or chance of propagating the disorder. Genetic Testing is also useful is transplant procedure, proving parenthood of a child or forensic analysis.

Blood Tests

These Are tests done on blood samples, i.e., blood work or panel. The blood is usually extracted from a vein in the upper limb using a figure prick or hypodermic needle. It tests for specific components of bold such as cholesterol, glucose tests

Genetic Testing

This is a medical test done to identify changes in proteins, genes or chromosomes. The test result helps to rule out or confirm genetic conditions or determine one's predisposition or chance of propagating the disorder. Genetic Testing is also useful is transplant procedure, proving parenthood of a child or forensic analysis.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 14 procedures

Cryotherapy

It is a medical therapy where low temperatures are used generally or locally. It is used to treat a variety of lesions (malignant or benign). Cold substances like liquid nitrogen are used to freeze then remove the lesions.

Decompression Therapy

This is a treatment that is used to relieve pain that is caused by compression of nerve tissue in various parts of the body. It can be surgical or non-surgical. Notable examples include spinal decompression surgery where components of the spine realigned to release pressure ion pinched nerves.

Chiropractic Adjustment

It is also known as a spinal adjustment. It is a term used by chiropractors to delineate the approaches to manipulating the spine. The chiropractor applies manipulation to the vertebrae, to reduce that subluxation and provided an effective lower back pain relief. All these manipulations should be done by a trained health professional in a hospital.

Physical Therapy

This is physiotherapy. It makes use of mechanical movements and force, manual therapy, electrotherapy and exercise therapy. It helps improve the patient’s quality of life via diagnosis, examination, prognosis and physical interventions.

Bone and Joint Screening

These are tests done to detect bone and joint diseases like cancers earlier. The test is commonly done when a patient present with bone and joint complains like pain. A bone screening test is widely used to diagnose osteoporosis. This is done by carrion out a bone mineral test.

Lymphatic Drainage Massage

This is a technique used to help increase the flow of lymph. The increased flow helps improve the immune function and remove harmful substances from tissues which are then neutralized in the lymph nodes. Apart from this, the procedure helps improve healing after surgery, improves breastfeeding, and relax a patient. Manual lymph drainage is the commonly used technique.

Knee Brace

This is a medical devices that is fitted into the knee joint to give it support, especially when the person has pain that is emanating from the knee. They are used to provide support to the knee ligaments and the patella while one recovers from injury, to prevent injury, play sports, or to relieve pain in the knee. There are four categories of knee braces available i.e. functional, unloader, prophylactic and rehabilitative braces.

Cryotherapy

It is a medical therapy where low temperatures are used generally or locally. It is used to treat a variety of lesions (malignant or benign). Cold substances like liquid nitrogen are used to freeze then remove the lesions.

Decompression Therapy

This is a treatment that is used to relieve pain that is caused by compression of nerve tissue in various parts of the body. It can be surgical or non-surgical. Notable examples include spinal decompression surgery where components of the spine realigned to release pressure ion pinched nerves.

Chiropractic Adjustment

It is also known as a spinal adjustment. It is a term used by chiropractors to delineate the approaches to manipulating the spine. The chiropractor applies manipulation to the vertebrae, to reduce that subluxation and provided an effective lower back pain relief. All these manipulations should be done by a trained health professional in a hospital.

Physical Therapy

This is physiotherapy. It makes use of mechanical movements and force, manual therapy, electrotherapy and exercise therapy. It helps improve the patient’s quality of life via diagnosis, examination, prognosis and physical interventions.

Bone and Joint Screening

These are tests done to detect bone and joint diseases like cancers earlier. The test is commonly done when a patient present with bone and joint complains like pain. A bone screening test is widely used to diagnose osteoporosis. This is done by carrion out a bone mineral test.

Lymphatic Drainage Massage

This is a technique used to help increase the flow of lymph. The increased flow helps improve the immune function and remove harmful substances from tissues which are then neutralized in the lymph nodes. Apart from this, the procedure helps improve healing after surgery, improves breastfeeding, and relax a patient. Manual lymph drainage is the commonly used technique.

Knee Brace

This is a medical devices that is fitted into the knee joint to give it support, especially when the person has pain that is emanating from the knee. They are used to provide support to the knee ligaments and the patella while one recovers from injury, to prevent injury, play sports, or to relieve pain in the knee. There are four categories of knee braces available i.e. functional, unloader, prophylactic and rehabilitative braces.

Infectious Diseases 4 procedures

Hepatitis Consultation

This is a visit to a hospital for physician clinical review after exposure to a patient with hepatitis or a previous diagnosis of hepatitis. The visit is meant to monitor treatment and if a first visit is assessed and investigated for your treatment plan to be made. The consultation can also be for purposes of vaccination or medical education.

Hepatitis C Treatment

Hepatitis c is a deadly medical condition. If not managed, managed early, it leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The treatment can be purely medical or involve surgery. Medical, we use antiviral agents and interferon to manage the condition. The only surgical treatment is a liver transplant. This is performed when one develops and end-stage liver disease. Hematologists are specialists in liver diseases.

Hepatitis Consultation

This is a visit to a hospital for physician clinical review after exposure to a patient with hepatitis or a previous diagnosis of hepatitis. The visit is meant to monitor treatment and if a first visit is assessed and investigated for your treatment plan to be made. The consultation can also be for purposes of vaccination or medical education.

Hepatitis C Treatment

Hepatitis c is a deadly medical condition. If not managed, managed early, it leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The treatment can be purely medical or involve surgery. Medical, we use antiviral agents and interferon to manage the condition. The only surgical treatment is a liver transplant. This is performed when one develops and end-stage liver disease. Hematologists are specialists in liver diseases.

Rheumatology 2 procedures

Rheumatoid Arthritis Consultation

This is a visit to a consultant physician rheumatologist. The doctor will assess the patient condition and formulate an appropriate treatment plan the book them for follow up.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Consultation

This is a visit to a consultant physician rheumatologist. The doctor will assess the patient condition and formulate an appropriate treatment plan the book them for follow up.

Vascular Medicine 2 procedures

Angiography

This is a medical imaging modality that is used to view the lumen or inside of organs and vessels in the body with a special interest in veins, arteries, and chambers of the heart. It helps reveal areas of blockage or areas with pathology. They include arteriogram, venograms, CT angiography, MR angiography. Examples microangiography, coronary angiography, etc.

Angiography

This is a medical imaging modality that is used to view the lumen or inside of organs and vessels in the body with a special interest in veins, arteries, and chambers of the heart. It helps reveal areas of blockage or areas with pathology. They include arteriogram, venograms, CT angiography, MR angiography. Examples microangiography, coronary angiography, etc.

Endocrinology 3 procedures

Diabetes Consultation

This is the review of a newly diagnosed or known diabetic patient by a diabetic care team. The doctors will take the patient history of the condition, carry out physical examinations to detect any diabetic complication, proper carryout investigations like RBS and educated the patient about his condition an, the impotence of drug compliance and possible lifestyle changes that patient will have to implement. The consult may decide to change the patient drugs.

Endocrinology Consultation

This is a review of a patient suspected or diagnosed with endocrinological disorders such as hyperthyroidism. The patient will undergo a clinical examination and relevant investigations ordered to check the patient’s general medical condition. The patient’s medications will also be reviewed, and if failing, they will be changed. The consult can be done to a gynecologic, obstetric, medical, surgical, pediatric or even a psychiatric patient.

Endocrinology Testing

These are tests done to diagnose or rule our Endocrinological disorders. The test measures the level of a certain hormone in the blood, e.g., estrogen, thyroid function test, growth hormone, stimulating follicle hormone, etc.

Specialists

Specialists working with Apollo Hospitals Chennai Greams Road

Dr. Uma Krishnaswamy General Surgery

  • She has over 30 yrs experience in India and United Kingdom
  • She is the first surgeon in Chennai, working in Apollo hospitals offering a comprehensive breast service
  • Surgery for benign disease and breast cancer, Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Prevention of Breast Cancer Support Group Activities

Dr Mohamed Zehran Saipillai Oncology

  • He has over 13 years of experience
  • Dr Zehran spent five years being dual trained in Radiation Oncology and Systemic Treatments

Dr Prakash Chand Jain Cardiology

  • He has over 20 years of experience and a member of Cardiology society of India

Dr Abraham Oomman Cardiology

  • He has over 18 years of experience
  • He presented Scientific Paper at the American Heart Association & European Society of Cardiology Scientific Sessions

Dr Bala Chandran T G Gastroenterology

  • He has over 35 years of experience
  • Experience in Surgery- Operated Major Surgical operations in Hepato-biliary & Pancreatic Diseases Oesophagus Stomach Gallbladder Small and large gut Spleen Operated basic and advance laparoscopic surgery Appendix Gallbladder CBD-exploration Fundoplication Pancreas Spleen Colorectal Hernias Stapler Haemorroidectomy Trained for Basic and Advanced Laparoscopic techniques at ‘Ethicon Endosurgery Institute’, Mumbai

Dr Pratik Ranjan Sen Ophthalmology

  • He has over 20 yars of experience
  • He has conducted over 8000 surgeries of Retinal detachment and other Vitreo retinal disorders

Dr Krishnamoorthy K Orthopedics

  • He has over 25 years of experience

Dr A P Prem General Surgery

  • MBBS, MS - General Surgery
  • 25 Years of experience
  • Special Interests - Tonsillitis Treatment, Laparoscopic Sleeve Resection, Gall Bladder (Biliary) Stone Treatment

Dr Hariharan Muthuswamy Gastroenterology

  • MBBS; MD (INT.MED); DM(GASTRO); MRCP
  • 32 Years of experience. More than 10 years of training and experience in United Kingdom.
  • 22 years experience in the field of Gastroenterology , Hepatology and Endoscopy.

Dr Robert Mao Cardiology

  • MBBS, MD, DM, FCCP, FICC
  • 24 Years of experience.

Dr Col Rajagopal A Dermatology

  • MBBS; MD DV&D
  • 45 Years of experience
  • Advisor to Armed Forces Medical Services Ministry of Defence Govt.of India

Dr Prasanna Kumar Reddy Gastroenterology

  • M.B., FRCS(Eng,Edin,Glasg), FACG(U.S.A), D.Sc(Hon Dip. in Surgical Laparoscopy, (Fr)
  • 46 Years of experience
  • Established Gastro-intestinal unit in Apollo Hospitals, Chennai, India
  • Established an Advanced Laparoscopic Unit at Apollo Hospitals, Chennai, India

Dr Girinath M R Cardiology

  • Cardio Thoracic Surgeon - MBBS, M.S.(General Surgery), M.Ch.(CTS)
  • 45 Years of experience. Has headed the cardiac surgery unit of Apollo Hospitals, Chennai since 1984.
  • LIFE TIME Achievement Award Indian Association Cardio Vasular Thoracic Surgeons
  • The unit has done close to 40,000 heart operations of which 29,000 have been coronar bypass operations including 14,000 on a beating heart.

Dr Joseph Thachil Urology

  • FRCS(Urology)
  • 40 years of experience at the university Hospitals, Toronto ,Canada and Apollo hospitals
  • Largest Number of Renal Transport in the Country.

Dr P S Reddy Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT)

  • MS(DLO)
  • 40 YEARS International Work Experience

Dr. Sumana Manohar Gynecology

  • MBBS, Fellow of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists FRCOG (London), MRCOG
  • 26 Years Experience

Dr. R. Charumathi Gynecology

  • MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
  • 31 years of experience

Location

No: 21, Greams Lane, Off Greams Road, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600006


Accreditations

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers (NABH)
Joint Commission International (JCI)

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