The Saint-Michel Clinic (Elsan)
The Saint-Michel clinic located in Toulon is a private health care facility with a first-class technical platform, offering many surgical specialties and several specialized centers especially in the forefront. This institution is run by a team of liberal practitioners and salaried health professionals.
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Ophthalmology 14 procedures
This is a procedure where the lens in one’s eye that has become cloudy (cataract) is removed and replaced with an artificial Len (called IOL or intraocular Len). Cataract is a condition that leads to loss of vision by clouding of one’s natural eye Len that lies behind the pupil and iris. It is performed by an ophthalmologist.
Detached Retina Treatment
The retinal detachment is an emergency condition where the pulls from the bold vessel that supply it with nutrients and oxygen. It’s accompanied by floaters (cobwebs or specks) and flashes in one's vision. If not fixed leads to blindness. The condition can be managed via various treatment modalities by an ophthalmologist. The notable procedures include vitrectomy, pneumatic retinopexy and scleral buckle procedure.
It is also known as blepharoplasty. It’s a surgical procedure meant to improve the appearance of one's eyelids. It can be performed on the lower lid, upper lids or both. It’s performed by plastic surgeons and helps correct deformities, disfigurations, and defects of the eyelids. It’s used to treat sagging or loose skin that creates a fold and disturb natural contour of the eye, remove fatty deposits that make ones eye puffy, remove bags below the eye, correct drooping lower lid and remove fine wrinkles and excess skins in lower lids.
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Treatment
Currently, there is no specific treatment for dry AMD, but the patient can slow their condition by taking minerals and vitamins daily. There are however the wet AMD can be managed with Anti-VEGF drugs which helps decrease the number of abnormal vessels in one’s eye. Laser surgery can also be used to manage it.
This is corneal grafting. It is a surgical procedure where a person’s diseased or damaged cornea is replaced by a corneal tissue that is donated.
Artificial Iris Implantation
During this procedure, an artificial iris made from silicon is folded then inserted into an incision that has been made in the cornea. It is a cosmetic procedure. In it, the iris is adjusted and unfolded to cove one's natural iris. This implant is used to change the color of one’s eyes. It is also sued to treat coloboma or people whose iris have been damaged by traumatic injuries.
Amniotic Membrane Transplant
Amniotic Membrane can function as a temporary graft or a basement membrane substitute in the eye. The membrane has growth factors that promote wound healing. Also, it has anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring effects. AM has two functions, i.e., as a surgical graft and as a biological bandage. AMT is used in ophthalmology to reconstruct the conjunctiva and the cornea after scaring due to disease, acute burns, and corneal persistent epithelial defects.
A Chalazion is a painless benign nodule or bulge in the lower or upper eyelids. Conservatively, it is managed by lid hygiene and warm compress. Medically, topical or intralesional steroids can be used to minimize inflammation. This can cause regression of the lesion in few weeks. An ophthalmologist best performs surgery to remove the lesion.
This is type of refractive error in which the eyes don’t focus light evenly on the retina resulting in blurring of vision. It can also lead to night blindness, headaches and eyestrains. The condition is corrected with contact lenses, refractive surgery and eyeglasses.
Vitrectomy (Retinal Detachment Repair)
Retinal detachment repair is eye surgery to place a retina back into its normal position. The retina is the light-sensitive tissue in the back of the eye. Detachment means that it has pulled away from the layers of tissue around it. Most retinal detachment repair operations are urgent. A detached retina does not get a supply of oxygen. This causes the cells in the area to die, which can lead to blindness. If holes or tears in the retina are found before the retina detaches, the eye doctor can close the holes using a laser.
Ptosis (lazy eye)
Ptosis is a drooping or falling of the upper eyelid. The drooping may be worse after being awake longer when the individual's muscles are tired. This condition is sometimes called "lazy eye", but that term normally refers to the condition amblyopia.
An eye cancer that begins in the back of the eye (retina), most commonly in children. Retinoblastoma may occur in one or both eyes. Retinoblastoma has few, if any, symptoms at first. It may be noticed if a pupil appears white when light is shone into the eye, sometimes with flash photography. Eyes may appear to be looking in different directions. Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation and laser therapy.
Strabismus (ocular misalignment)
Disorder in which the eyes don't look in exactly the same direction at the same time. Causes of strabismus can include nerve injury or dysfunction of the muscles controlling the eye. The main symptom is eyes that don't look in exactly the same direction at the same time. Crossed eyes can usually be corrected with early treatment. Several treatment options exist to align the eyes. They include special eye wear, use of an eye patch and rarely surgery.
A group of eye conditions that can cause blindness. With all types of glaucoma, the nerve connecting the eye to the brain is damaged, usually due to high eye pressure. The most common type of glaucoma (open-angle glaucoma) often has no symptoms other than slow vision loss. Angle-closure glaucoma, although rare, is a medical emergency and its symptoms include eye pain with nausea and sudden visual disturbance. Treatment includes eye drops, medication and surgery.
Gastroenterology 25 procedures
This is a surgical procedure used to remove the gallbladder i.e., pear- shaped organ below the right lobe of the liver where bile is stored. The gallbladder can be removed due to inflammation (cholecystitis), gallstones if it leads to pancreatitis, gallbladder cancer, and biliary colic. The procedure can either be open or laparoscopic. Laparoscopic surgery is minimally invasive and only performed by a laparoscopic surgeon. Currently, advanced laparoscopic surgeries use single incisions, a technique called single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) or laparoendoscopic single site surgery.
This is an endoscopic procedure used to examine the colon (large intestine) and the Ileum (the distal sections of the small intestine) using a fiber optic camera or a CCD camera on a flexible tube that is passed via the anus. It helps in the diagnosis of ulcers (e.g., ulcerative colitis, Cohn’s disease), polyps (e.g., HNPCC) and removal or biopsy of suspected lesions of colorectal cancer. It is also used in screening for colorectal cancer. Currently, virtual colonoscopy which is virtually noninvasive is available and uses CT scans or MRI sand to reconstruct its images.
It is a nonsurgical procedure done to examine a person’s gastrointestinal tract. A patient may be anesthetized or fully conscious during the process. It is used in the investigation of gastrointestinal symptoms, confirmation of diagnosis and for treatment purposes, e.g., widening and esophageal stricture. The most commonly performed endoscopic procedure is esophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD). Endoscopy is also used to examine the respiratory tract (rhinoscopy or bronchoscopy), the ear (otoscope), the urinary tract (cystoscopy) and female reproductive tract (gynoscopy). The technology is also available for use in pregnancy, plastic surgery, orthopedic surgery, endodontic surgeries, endoscopic spinal procedure and endoscopic endonasal surgeries.
Treatment of gallstones is based on one's symptoms and results of diagnostic procedures. The treatment options include cholecystectomy (surgery to remove the gallbladder) and drugs meant to dissolve the stones.
Liver Transplant (Living Related Donor)
This is the replacement of a diseased liver with a healthy one from a relative.it is recommended as a treatment for an end-stage liver disease or liver failure. The donor and recipient will have to undergo DNA analysis to ensure they are a close match before the procedure is done to minimize the risk of graft rejection.
This is a surgical procedure where a stoma is created by dragging a healthy end of the large bowel via an incision in the anterior wall of the abdomen then sutured into place. There are several techniques of colostomy, i.e., wind colostomy, loop colostomy and double barrel colostomy.
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
This is a technique that combines the use of fluoroscopy and endoscopy to diagnose and treat pancreatic and biliary ductal systems conditions like bile stones.
This is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure. In the process, a flexible thin tube, i.e., an endoscope is inserted into the gullet, stomach, and the duodenum. The endoscope has a camera at its end. The most commonly used terms in hospitals to refer to the procedure are upper GI endoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD).
A gastroenterologist is a physician that has unique training and experience in the management of liver and gastrointestinal diseases. In a Gastroenterology Consultation, the doctor will examine the patient’s abdomen, possibly do an endoscopic procedure, order appropriate investigations on the patient’s and formulate or review the patient's treatment plan.
Gastrointestinal Perforation Repair
This is a procedure done to repair a hole in the gastrointestinal tract. It is performed during an exploratory laparotomy where the hole is looked for and the damaged area corrected.
Liver Transarterial Chemo Embolization (TACE)
This is a procedure done to manage liver cancer. Embolization is a procedure that slows or blocks the blood supply for an organ or tissue. In this case, it is used to block the blood supply to a live tumor so that that cancer cells can die. Chemoembolization is when the embolization material is used to deliver chemotherapy. Liver TACE, hepatic atrial blood supply to the tumor is blocked.
This is biopsy taken form the liver. It is a medical procedure that is done to diagnose, assess severity or monitor response to treatment of liver diseases.
Esophageal Cancer Surgery
This is a procedure done to treat cancer of the esophagus. The diseased area is resected. It is commonly done to manage earl stage (stage 1 and 2) esophageal cancer. It can be combine with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Surgical options available included minimally invasive esophagectomy, open esophagectomy, and endoscopic mucosal resection.
Intra-Abdominal Adhesions Surgery
Adhesion are complications of radiation therapy, inflammatory processes and abdomino-pelvic surgeries. These adhesions can cause infertility, intestinal obstructions, chronic pelvic pain, and dyspareunia. These surgery is meat to manage these effects of adhesions so as to improve the patients overall quality of life.
Bile Duct Cancer Surgery
This is a procedure done to manage cancers of the distal and perihiler bile ducts. The surgery removes the bile duct and all the sentinel lymph nodes, along with sections of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and small bowel depending on the patient disease statue.
This is a surgical procedure done to in which the common bile duct is to looks for an remove bile stone within it. It can be done as a laparoscopic operation or an open procedure.
Capsule endoscopy is a procedure that uses a tiny wireless camera to take pictures of your digestive tract. A capsule endoscopy camera sits inside a vitamin-size capsule you swallow. As the capsule travels through your digestive tract, the camera takes thousands of pictures that are transmitted to a recorder you wear on a belt around your waist. Capsule endoscopy helps doctors see inside your small intestine — an area that isn't easily reached with more-traditional endoscopy procedures. Traditional endoscopy involves passing a long, flexible tube equipped with a video camera down your throat or through your rectum.
Cystogastrostomy is a surgery to create an opening between a pancreatic pseudocyst and the stomach when the cyst is in a suitable position to be drained into the stomach. This conserves pancreatic juices that would otherwise be lost. This surgery is performed by a GI surgeon to avoid a life-threatening rupture of the pancreatic pseudocyst.
Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced surgical procedure using endoscopy to remove gastrointestinal tumors that have not entered the muscle layer. ESD may be done in the esophagus, stomach or colon. Application of endoscopic resection (ER) to gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms is limited to lesions with no risk of nodal metastasis. Either polypectomy or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is beneficial for patients because of its low level of invasiveness. However, to ensure the curative potential of these treatment modalities, accurate histopathologic assessment of the resected specimens is essential because the depth of invasion and lymphovascular infiltration of the tumor is associated with considerable risk for lymph node metastasis. For accurate assessment of the appropriateness of the therapy, en bloc resection is more desirable than piecemeal resection. For a reliable en bloc resection of GI neoplasms, a new method of ER called endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been developed.
Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (EUS-FNA)
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) is currently performed on a routine basis at many endoscopic centers and it is evident that this procedure has a major impact on the therapeutic management of patients by obtaining a definite tissue diagnosis from lesions outlined by endosonography.
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) Placement
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a method of placing a tube into the stomach percutaneously, aided by endoscopy.
Esophageal manometry is a test to measure how well the esophagus is working. During esophageal manometry, a thin, pressure-sensitive tube is passed through your nose, down the esophagus, and into your stomach. Before the procedure, you receive numbing medicine inside the nose. This helps make the insertion of the tube less uncomfortable. After the tube is in the stomach, the tube is pulled slowly back into your esophagus. At this time, you are asked to swallow. The pressure of the muscle contractions is measured along several sections of the tube. While the tube is in place, other studies of your esophagus may be done. The tube is removed after the tests are completed. The test takes about 1 hour.
During a biofeedback session, electrodes are attached to your skin. Finger sensors can also be used. These electrodes/sensors send signals to a monitor, which displays a sound, flash of light, or image that represents your heart and breathing rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, sweating, or muscle activity. When you're under stress, these functions change. Your heart rate speeds up, your muscles tighten, your blood pressure rises, you start to sweat, and your breathing quickens. You can see these stress responses as they happen on the monitor, and then get immediate feedback as you try to stop them. Biofeedback sessions are typically done in a therapist's office, but there are computer programs that connect the biofeedback sensor to your own computer. A biofeedback therapist helps you practice relaxation exercises, which you fine-tune to control different body functions. For example, you might use a relaxation technique to turn down the brainwaves that activate when you have a headache
Liver Transplant (ABO Incompatible transplant)
This is the replacement of a diseased liver with a healthy one from a relative.it is recommended as a treatment for an end-stage liver disease or liver failure. ABO-incompatible (ABOi) transplantation is a method of allocation in organ transplantation that permits more efficient use of available organs regardless of ABO blood type
Liver Cirrhosis Treatment
Hepatitis and chronic alcohol abuse are frequent causes. Liver damage caused by cirrhosis can't be undone, but further damage can be limited. Initially patients may experience fatigue, weakness and weight loss. During later stages, patients may develop jaundice (yellowing of the skin), gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal swelling and confusion. Treatments focus on the underlying cause. In advanced cases, a liver transplant may be required.
Cardiology 22 procedures
Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Closure
An ASD is a congenital heart defect in the atrial septum that results in leakage oxygen-rich blood from left atrium to the right atrium. This increases the work of workload of the right side of the heart and if not corrected early can lead to heart failure. The defect if small can be corrected by cardiac catheterization usually by a pediatric cardiologist. A large defect often needs open heart procedures.
This is the systematic examination of a patient’s cardiovascular system with the aim of diagnosing cardiovascular problems. The assessment encompasses taking a comprehensive history of a patient, carrying out a thorough physical examination of a patient and finally doing investigations such as electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, central venous pressure, etc.
It is a type of cardiac catheterization procedure. It is performed for both interventional and diagnostic purposes. In this procedure, a dye that is radiopaque is injected into the blood vessels of one’s heart. An X-ray machine is then used to take serial images (angiograms) that give a picture of how the blood vessels are. Based on the finding, an interventional cardiologist will open the clogged vessels (angioplasty).
Also known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) Thais is a procedure that is used to widen narrowed or blocked coronary arteries. The procedure is carried out by an interventional cardiologist. When combined with stenting, it is referred to as percutaneous coronary intervention. Is should be done within thirty minutes to 2 hours after a having a cardiac event.
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery
Also referred to as colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery or coronary artery bypass surgery. It is an operation done restore normal blood flow to obstructed coronary vessels hence used to manage coronary heart disease. The surgery has two main approaches, i.e., diversion of the internal thoracic artery to the left anterior descending artery in the left coronary vessel and using the great saphenous vein to create a connection between the aorta or its branch to the obstructed artery distance to the obstruction.
This is a hospital checkup and review by a qualified cardiologist. It involves patient assessment, treatment planning, diagnosis and cardiac interventions.
This is a cardiothoracic operation that involves the replacement of a composite graft of the aortic root, ascending aorta and the aortic valve with implantation of coronary arteries into the graft.
This is a painless imaging modality that uses x-rays to take detailed images of one’s heart and its blood vessels. It may or may not be done with intravenous contrast agents. The modern multidetector CT (MDCT) is highly sensitive.
Atrioventricular Fistula Treatment
This is a procedure used to correct abnormal connections between the atria and ventricles of one's heart. The surgery requires the deformity be repaired to ensure that the correct flow of blood in one’s heart is achieved.
Aortic Valve Repair
This is a procedure done to repair or replace aortic valves damaged by disease. Aortic valves are one of the four heart valves that help regulate the flow of blood in the heart. The surgeon will remove the damaged valves and replace them with a prosthetic one which is then screwed into place. The valves can be mechanical (made of artificial materials like carbon) or biological, i.e., from animal or human tissue.
Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD) Treatment
Atrioventricular Septal Defect is a congenital malformation of the heart that allows the mixing of blood from the right and left sides of the heart. It can be due to the absence of the persistence of fetal interatrial foramen or the complete absence of part or whole of the septum. The management of the condition is surgical.
Aortopulmonary Window Repair
Aortopulmonary Window is a rare defect of the heart in which there is a hole connecting the aorta and the pulmonary artery abs a result failure of the conotructal ridges to fuse. As spontaneous closure does not occur, once a diagnosis is made, Aortopulmonary Window Repair surgery is the only solution.
24 Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring
This allows a patient’s blood pressure to be measured at regular intervals (20-30 minutes) over a 24 hour period, whether the patient is asleep or awake. The BP will be measure as one goes about the activities of his daily life. It helps to detect masked hypertension, sustained hypertension and white coat hypertensions. It is also good in situations like BP change due to medication, pregnancy related hypertension, borderline hypertension, fainting episodes and when it is difficult to control BP with drugs.
Heart Transplant surgery is done to replace a damaged heart with a healthy, working heart that is taken from an ‘organ donor’ who has recently died. However, in very rare cases, the diseased heart is kept in its place to support the donated heart, instead of being removed. Heart transplant is used as a last resort when all the other cardiac treatments fail to improve the health of the patient.
Minimally Invasive (Key hole) Bypass Surgery
Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass is a surgical treatment for coronary heart disease that is a less invasive method of coronary artery bypass surgery, without the need to opening chest.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)
An enlargement of the aorta, the main blood vessel that delivers blood to the body, at the level of the abdomen. An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) can be life-threatening if it bursts. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are most common in older men and smokers.
Radio frequency (RF) Ablation heart rhythm correction
Catheter ablation is a procedure that uses radiofrequency energy (similar to microwave heat) to destroy a small area of heart tissue that is causing rapid and irregular heartbeats. Destroying this tissue helps restore your heart's regular rhythm.
Permanent Pacemaker Implant (Double Chamber)
A pacemaker is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart. A pacemaker consists of a small, battery-powered generator and one or more leads. In a single-chamber system, one lead is used, most commonly pacing the right ventricle. Dual-chamber pacemakers have two leads, placed in the right atrium and right ventricle.
Permanent Pacemaker Implant (Single Chamber)
A pacemaker is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart. Single-chamber pacemaker - With this device, 1 pacing lead is implanted in the right atrium or ventricle.
Mitral & Aortic Valve Replacement (AVR MVR)
Valve replacement surgery is the replacement of one or more of the heart valves with either an artificial heart valve or a bioprosthesis. It is an alternative to valve repair.
Minimally Invasive Valve Replacement (AVR MVR)
Valve replacement surgery is the replacement of one or more of the heart valves with either an artificial heart valve or a bioprosthesis. It is an alternative to valve repair. Benefits of minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) have been well recognized when compared with a standard median sternotomy, in terms of blood loss reduction, lower morbidity, shorter intensive care unit and in-hospital stay.
Double valve replacement (DVR including two valves)
A double valve replacement is a replacement of both the mitral and the aortic valve, or the entire left side of the heart. This type of surgery is not as common as the others and the mortality rate is slightly higher.
Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) 18 procedures
This is a surgical procedure used to remove the adenoids (lymphoid tissue in the nasopharynx) when they are enlarged hence causing recurrent earache, chronic infections or impaired breathing via the nose. It is performed by an otolaryngologist.
This is an electronic gadget (device) used to replace the functions of the inner ear when it is damaged. The implant does the work of the Cochlear by generating sound signals for the brain. It is thus useful in persons with profound or moderate hearing loss bilaterally. The device helps one to her better. Cochlear implant surgery is done by ENT Surgeon.
These are surgeries done on the larynx to remove various pathologies such as laryngeal cancer, laryngeal papilloma, laryngeal granulomas, etc. Total laryngectomy (open) is the complete removal of the larynx while partial is incomplete removal. This normally depends on the location and stage of cancer. Endoscopic laryngeal surgeries are getting common. Microlaryngeal surgeries are used to operate on one's vocal cord. Laser surgery is a recent addition.
It is a test done to test one’s ability to perceive sound. The machine used to do the test is called an audiometer. It measures ones hearing acuity based on variations in sound tone, pitch, and intensity. It helps grade conduction deafness and rules out sensorineural hearing loss.
This is the surgical removal of the larynx and then separating it from the nose, esophagus and the moth. It can be total or partial. In total, the entire larynx is removed while in partial, only a portion is exercised. It is commonly used in the treatment of laryngeal cancers. It is a procedure performed by ENT surgeons.
Sleep Apnea Surgery
This surgery is only done when other treatment modalities are exhausted. The list of surgical options that can be done to treat sleep apnea includes: tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy, tracheostomy, radiofrequency ablation, maxilla-mandibular advancement, palatal surgery, bariatric surgery, nerve stimulation and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.
This is the surgical removal of part or whole of the thyroid tissue. The Parathyroid gland is usually preserved. It can be partial thyroidectomy where part of the thyroid is preserved, or it can be total thyroidectomy where the whole of the thyroid tissue is removed. It is commonly indicated for lived conditions like goiter, thyroid malignancies, etc.
This is the endoscopic examination of the larynx and the back of the throat. The larynx is part of the throat. The procedure is carried out ear nose and throat specialists. There are two types of laryngoscopy procedures, i.e., direct laryngoscopy and indirect laryngoscopy.
This is a procedure done to correct perforation in the pars tensa of the eardrum. When the procedure is combined with the reconstruction of the ear ossicles, the procedure is termed tympanoplasty. The operation is normally done while the patient is lying supine with the face turned to one side such that the side being operated lies upward. The procedure is carried out otolaryngologists. There are two major techniques currently being used, i.e., the overlay technique and the underlying technique.
Ossicular Chain Reconstruction
This is a procedure done to treat conductive deafness. It sis a middle ear procedure that is performed by otolaryngologists. Damage middle ear bones i.e. stapes, malleus and incus can be replaced in the process.
This is a procedure done to straighten the nasal septum that lies between the two nasal septums. The submucous septum is resected and reconstructed. It is done to correct a nasal septum that deviates.
This is a surgical operation done to reconstructs the eardrum or the middle ear bones. There are five type of Tympanoplasty procedures i.e. type l to type V Tympanoplasty procedures.
This is a surgical procedure in which the fibrofatty content of the neck is removed as a treatment for metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. Head and neck malignances commonly metastasize to the cervical lymph nodes. There are various surgical options available i.e. radical neck dissection, modified radical neck dissection, selective neck dissection and extended radical neck dissection.
This is the surgical removal of part or whole of the tongue. It is done to manage malignant tumors like oral cancers.
Facial Nerve Paralysis - Nerve Repair
Dynamic and static reconstruction procedures are employed for facial reanimation in patients suffering from facial nerve paralysis. However, dynamic strategies tend to be more successful and fruitful and should be offered to each patient considering reconstruction, unless health risk contraindications exist. The most common approaches for reconstruction are direct facial nerve repair with or without grafting, nerve transfer, cross-facial nerve grafting, and muscle transfer (either regional muscle or free-muscle neurotized transfer)
A mastoidectomy is surgery to remove cells in the hollow, air-filled spaces in the skull behind the ear. These cells are called mastoid air cells. This surgery used to be a common way to treat an infection in mastoid air cells. In most cases, the condition was caused by an ear infection that spread to the bone in the skull. Mastoidectomy may be used to treat colesteatoma, complications of an ear infection (otitis media), infections of the mastoid bone that do not get better with antibiotics and to place a cochlear implant
Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which both palatine tonsils are removed from a recess in the side of the pharynx called the tonsillar fossa.
Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS)
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is a minimally invasive surgical treatment which uses nasal endoscopes to enlarge the nasal drainage pathways of the paranasal sinuses to improve sinus ventilation.
Orthopedics 24 procedures
A bunion is very painful. They are bony bumps which form at the base of one’s big toe. It normally forms a union between this toe and the 1st metatarsal one. Bunion removal surgery helps correct the area of deformity that forms on foot near the big toe. The surgery is sometimes referred to as hallux valgus correction or bunionectomy.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgery
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is the tingling, numbness, weakness plus other problems in one's hand because of pressure being applied to the median nerve as it traverses the wrist. The small space where it passes through in the wrist called the Carpal Tunnel. This surgery is meant to relive the pressure hence relieving the symptoms. The two types of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgeries are open and endoscopic, all available in India.
This is an orthopedic surgical procedure where a damaged hip is replaced with an implant, i.e., a prosthesis. This procedure can be performed either as hemi-replacement (only femoral head is replaced) or total replacement (i.e., total hip arthroplasty where both the femoral head and acetabulum are replaced).
Knee Replacement (arthroplasty) is an operation used to replace weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve disability and pain. Especially in patients with osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Surgical techniques available include total knee replacement, partial knee replacement and femoral replacement.
Shoulder Replacement (arthroplasty) is an operation in which a prosthesis is used to replace part or all of the glenohumeral joint to relieve disability and pain. It is used to fix shoulder joint damage or relieve arthritic pain. We have the traditional shoulder total shoulder arthroplasty and the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty approach. The latter has two approaches, i.e., the deltopectoral approach and the transdeltoid approach.
Its an ankle replacement surgery done to replace damaged joint articular surfaces with prosthetic implants. It is currently a more preferred option than arthrodesis.
Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI)
This is a new type of orthopedic procedure that is used to manage to isolate full thickness joint articular surface defect in the knees. It is performed in three stages where about 2000-300 milligrams of cartilage is sampled from a less weight bearing area of a joins, isolated enzymatically then grown in a lab for six weeks before transplanting in damaged areas so that they grow and form new cartilage.
Knee Ligament Surgery (ACL)
This is a procedure done to treat knee ligament tears. It is currently done as a laparoscopic procedure, but open surgery is still practiced in some regions of the world. It helps reduce pain and improve stability in the joint.
Benign Bone Tumor Removal
Benign Bone Tumors are not cancers hence do not metastasize to other areas of the body. They however greatly weaken a one. Common one tumor include giant cell tumors, osteoid osteoma, osteochondroma, and osteoblastoma. Treatment involves surgical excision of the tumor or scrapping out (curettage) of the tumor with bone grafting.
Congenital Hip Dislocation Treatment
Congenital Hip Dislocation is also known as developmental dysplasia of the hip. It is a condition where a child is born with an unstable joint due to abnormal formation of the joint in early fetal development stages. It is more common in girls than boys. Screening for the condition occurs at birth and in the first year of life. A baby younger than 6 years is treated using a Pavlik harness. If this fails, the condition is managed via surgery. Surgical options include open reduction or closed reduction, after which the hip and leg are placed in a cast for at least 12 weeks. A child who is 18 months or older is managed by pelvic or femoral osteotomy to reconstruct their hip.
Achilles Tendon Rupture
This is a complete tear through the tendon, usually about two inches from the calcaneal (heel) bone. The tendon it vital to activities like jumping, walking or running. The rupture is common in those suffering from Achilles tendinitis, illnesses like diabetes or on drugs like steroids and antibiotics. Surgery is essential for faster healing. However, a cast can be used to allow the leg heal naturally but will take quite long.
Ankle Fracture Treatment
Ankle fractures can be treated surgically or non-surgically. The method will depend on the degree of injury and the patient’s choice. The non-surgical options include casting and splinting.
This is the removal of a limb by surgery, medical or trauma. As a surgical measure, it is used to control a disease process affected limb like gangrene and malignancy or to control pain. It may also be carried of prophylactically to prevent these problems.
Bone Fracture Treatment
Treatment depend on the severity of the fracture, patient choice and cost of treatment. Medically, reduction is done to fix a dislocated or Brocken bone. Devices available to fix fracture include orthopedic casts, splints, elastic bandages, and traction splint. Therapeutic physical therapy and joint manipulation can be done. Surgery included internal and external fixation.
Club foot is also known as congenital talipes equinovarus. It is a combination of four thing in one i.e. cavus, adductus, varus and equinus. There are several types of clubfoot. It is a highly disabling condition if not managed early. The condition can be managed Non-operatively by Ponseti technique, Kite technique and French technique. Surgical options included: Posteromedial soft tissue release, Osteotomies, Triple arthrodesis, Achilles tenotomy and JESS.
This s a procedure done to replace elbow joint that has been damaged by disease or trauma. It is indicated in severe loss of function, instability, joint destruction, severe pain or deformity. It is successful in relieving people of pain and improving the overall quality of life of the patient.
Knee Ligament Surgery (MCL)
The MCL is one of the four ligaments of the knee. A Knee Ligament Surgery is done to treat torn ligament as a result of injurer. As the MCL surgery is located outside the joint, no surgical key hole are usually necessary. The torn ligament can be reattached with staples, screws and screws through a small incision.
These is a surgical procedure that is done to teat or diagnose knee joint problems like injuries and diseases. During the procedure, a small incision is made and an Arthroscope (tiny camera) inserted into the knees therapy allowing the examiner to see the inside of the joint on a live screen.
Ankle Fusion Surgery
Also known as ankle arthrodesis, is a surgical procedure done to fuse the different bones that make up the ankle joint into one piece. It is done when the joint become painful and worn out due to disease or previous trauma.
The procedure is also known as total ankle arthroplasty. It is an orthopedic procedure done to replace the ankle joint articular surfaces that have been damaged by disease or injury with prosthetic components. It is done to treat ankle arthritis.
Artificial Limb Services
These services are provided to patient whose limb have been amputated so that they are able to walk again and improve their quality of life. The patient’s needs will be assessed on an individual basis and a variety of prosthetic equipment make available to support ones upper and lower limbs. Rehabilitative service are provided try a dedicated team of specialists.
Abscess is by infectious process that features collection of pus that is surrounded by inflamed tissue. The Debridement entails incision and drainage of the lesion followed by packing then proper dressing of the wound. The patient is then made to undergo a course of antibiotics.
Acromioclavicular Joint Repair
Acromioclavicular Joint is the meeting point of the clavicle and acromion joint in the shoulder. Injuries in the joint result from trauma, fall or sports. Conservative treatment is used in management of minor injuries. Sever injuries need surgery. This may be done through an open procedure or arthroscopy. This are employed in the reconstruction of the joint.
Knee Arthroscopy is a surgical technique that can diagnose and treat problems in the knee joint. During the procedure, your surgeon will make a very small incision and insert a tiny camera - called an arthroscope - into your knee. This allows them to view the inside of the joint on a screen.
Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery 21 procedures
Also known as tummy task is a cosmetic procedure that is done to make the abdomen firm and thinner. It involves the removal of excess skin and fat from the lower and middle abdomen to tighten the fascia and muscles of the wall of the abdomen. The procedure is sought after by patient with sagging or loose tissue, especially after marked weight loss or pregnancy. Types of Abdominoplasty available include high lateral tummy tuck, floating Abdominoplasty, circumferential Abdominoplasty, extended or partial or complete Abdominoplasty and combined procedure, e.g., with liposuction.
It is a prosthesis (saline or silicon) used to change the shape, contour, and size of one's breast. It adds volume to ones existing breast thereby creating a fuller chest. They are used in plastic and reconstructive surgeries to rectify congenital problems, restore natural breast mound after mastectomy or cosmetically in breast argumentation procedures.
Also known as mastopexy .it is a plastic surgery mammoplasty procedure used for raising sagging breast tissue on a lady’s chest by modifying and changing the contour, the elevation, and size of the breasts. Done by women whose breast have changed due to breastfeeding, pregnancy, gravity, aging, heredity and weight fluctuations. The procedure helps rejuvenate one's figure by creating a rest profile that is uplifted and more youthful.
Also known as Brachioplasty, is a procedure to provided increased contour and reshape the upper arms and at the same time connect the area to the chest wall. Techniques for Brachioplasty included minimal incision Brachioplasty, liposuction of the arm, traditional Brachioplasty, fish-incision Brachioplasty, extended Brachioplasty, superficial fascial system suspension, use of molds and non-excisional Brachioplasty.
This is a plastic surgery procedure done on patients with excess fat, tissues, and fat that linger after a significant weight loss. Depending on the position of the excess skin, patients can choose to undergo lower, mid or upper body lift.
This is a plastic surgical technique that tries to restore the breasts to a near-normal appearance, size, and shapes following a mastectomy.
This is a surgical procedure that involves the reduction than the addition of surgical implants in a patients chin. The procedure can take the form of argumentation of chins using implants or chin height reduction or rounding of the chin by osteotomy.
Dimple Creation Surgery
This is a minimally invasive cosmetic procedure that is done to create a dimple. A dimple is a natural indentation that is usually small and circular in the sacral, chin, or cheek region. Natural dimples on the cheek are the small opening on the buccinators muscle. It gives one a great looking smile.
This is a cosmetic procedure done to correct a patient’s jawline. It is commonly done on patients suffering from bruxism or patient who presents with a complaint of having rectangular or square jawlines thus making one's facial structure to look squarish. Treatment involves Botox injection. Jaw reduction surgeries are available.
This is a surgical or non-surgical procedure that is done to correct the defects and deformities of the pinna, reconstructed deformed, absent or defective external ear, and consequent to traumatic or congenital conditions.
This is a surgical (plastic and reconstructive) procedure for correcting and reconstructing the nose. It aesthetically improves the nose by resolving congenital disabilities, nasal trauma, a failed primary rhinoplasty, or respiratory impediments and restored nasal functions.
Varicose Veins Treatment
Varicose Veins are enlarged and gnarled vein that appears commonly in the feet and legs. Treatment usually helps though the condition is incurable. Treatment involves using devices like compressing stocking and elastic bandage. Weight loss and physical exercise also help. Medical procedures included sclerothrapy, ambulatory phabectomy, and laser therapy and radiofrequency ablation. Surgery involves vein stripping.
This is a surgical procedure that is done to reshape a patient’s buttocks, thighs, hips and abdomen. The procedure is actually an extension of the high lateral tension tummy tuck, a concept that Ted Lockwood developed.
This is a plastic surgical procedure that is done to correct clinical conditions (defect, deformity, damage) of the anus and the vagina. The procedure helps to resolve intraoital stenosis, decreased sexual stimulation, vaginismus, damaged perineum, genital warts, dyspareunia, vaginal loosening, vaginal itchiness, and vulvar vestibulitis.
Tummy Tuck or Abdominal Wall Surgery
Abdominal wall surgery is a procedure that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. It is also called a tummy tuck. It can range from a simple mini-tummy tuck to more extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which is another way to remove fat. But, abdominal wall surgery is sometimes combined with liposuction. Your surgery will be done in an operating room in a hospital. You will receive general anesthesia. This will keep you asleep and pain-free during the procedure. The surgery takes 2 to 6 hours. You can expect to stay in the hospital for 1 to 3 days after surgery.
Breast augmentation is a procedure to enlarge or change the shape of the breasts. Breast augmentation is done by placing implants behind breast tissue or under the chest muscle. An implant is a sac filled with either sterile salt water (saline) or a material called silicone.
Breast Reduction Surgery
Breast reduction is surgery to reduce the size of the breasts. It is done under general anesthesia. This is medicine that keeps you asleep and pain-free. For a breast reduction, the surgeon removes some of the breast tissue and skin. Your nipples may be moved higher to re-position them for cosmetic reasons.
Eyelid Lift (Blepharoplasty)
Eyelid lift surgery is done to repair sagging or drooping upper eyelids (ptosis) and remove excess skin from the eyelids. The surgery is called blepharoplasty. Sagging or drooping eyelids occur with increasing age. Some people are born with droopy eyelids or develop a disease that causes eyelid drooping.
Face lift (Face and neck)
A face-lift (rhytidectomy) is a cosmetic surgical procedure to improve the look of your face and neck. A neck lift (platysmaplasty) is often done as part of a face-lift. You might choose to have a face-lift if your facial skin is beginning to droop, a common occurrence with aging.
Face lift - Face, neck and upper and lower eyelids
A face-lift (rhytidectomy) is a cosmetic surgical procedure to improve the look of your face and neck. A neck lift (platysmaplasty) is often done as part of a face-lift. You might choose to have a face-lift if your facial skin is beginning to droop, a common occurrence with aging. Upper lid blepharoplasty removal of excess skin, and occasionally fat from the upper eyelids in order to refresh the appearance of the eyes. It can be combined with a lower lid blepharoplasty or brow lift to give a more complete rejuvenation to the eyes and upper third of the face.
Cheiloplasty (Lip Reduction)
Cheiloplasty or lip reduction surgery is a cosmetic surgical procedure that helps to treat unusually big, fat or protruding lips.
Urology 16 procedures
Bladder Neck Incision (BNI)
This is a procedure done on men experiencing difficulty passing urine due to benign prostatic enlargement or urinary tract obstruction from a tight prostate. The patient usually presents with frequency, urgency, urine dribbling, hesitancy, poor urine stream and incomplete emptying of the balder. The operation helps relieve these symptoms of obstruction.
This is a surgical procedure that removes part or whole of the prostate gland. It is usually used in the treatment of benign prostatic enlargement (BPH), or prostate canacer.it can be performed in several ways. For prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy is recommended. The current technique for performing this include open radical prostatectomy (retropubic or transvesical), laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. For benign enlarged prostate, simple prostatectomy is recommended. Newer techniques for managing BPH include transurethral resection of the prostate, transurethral laser-induced prostatectomy and Trans-urethral incision of the prostate. Noninvasive techniques include cryotherapy, laser therapy, thermal ablation and balloon dilation.
This is a surgical revision or reconstruction procedure of renal pelvis to decompress or drain the kidneys.it is performed to manage ureteropelvic junction obstructions provided the residual renal function is still adequate. Congenital hydronephrosis is its most common presentation in pediatrics.
This is the removal of the penile foreskin. It is the most commonly performed procedure in the world. In it, the foreskin is opened. Then adhesions removed before being separated from the glans and cut. The penis is then sutured. A recent study indicated that it lowers one's risk of contracting HIV by60%.
This is the surgical removal of part or whole (radical) of the urinary bladder. Sometimes the term is used to refer to the removal of the gallbladder or a cyst. This is commonly performed after a diagnosis of bladder cancer.
Erectile Dysfunction Treatment
Erectile Dysfunction is the inability of a man to keep or get an erection firm to have sexual intercourse. It is commonly described as important. The condition can be managed medically. 1st the patient has to be evaluated for a treatment plan is made, the plan may incorporate assistive devices like pumps or medications.
Bladder Stone Removal
This is a procedure done to remove renal stones that have formed in the bladder or pound their way into the bladder hence causing obstruction and pain. Various procedures are used to remove the stones, e.g., percutaneous suprapubic crystolitholapaxy and open cystostomy.
This is the endoscopic examination of the bladder. During the procedure, an endoscopic tube with a light and camera at the end is inserted into one's urethra, and into your bladder to visualize the inside of the bladder.
Kidney Stones Treatment
The treatment of renal stones included taking a lot of water to help pass these stones and use of painkiller to relive renal colonic pain. Drug used included NSAIDs, diuretics narcotics and urinary retention drugs. Medical procedures that can be done to remove the stones include laser lithotripsy, uteroscopic stone removal and extracorporeal shockwave therapy.
This is a procedure done to take a sample from the prostate for histological analysis. It is dome to detect or diagnose cancer of the prostate especially after blood PSA level; rises to the level of prostate cancer. There are several options that can be used to take the sample i.e. MRI-guided biopsy, ultrasound guided biopsy, Transrectal biopsy and transurethral biopsy.
TURP (Transurethral Resection of Prostate)
Transurethral Resection of Prostate is a surgery to remove the inside part of the prostate gland. It is done in order to treat symptoms of an enlarged prostate. The surgery takes about 1 hour. You will be given medicine before surgery so you don't feel pain. You may get general anesthesia in which you are asleep and pain-free or spinal anesthesia in which you are awake, but relaxed and pain-free. The surgeon will insert a scope through the tube that carries urine from your bladder out of the penis. This tube is called the urethra. A special cutting tool is placed through the scope. It is used to remove the inside part of your prostate gland using electricity.
Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL - Kidney Stone Removal)
Percutaneous (through the skin) urinary procedures help drain urine from your bladder and get rid of kidney stones. A percutaneous nephrostomy is the placement of a small, flexible rubber tube (catheter) through your skin into your kidney to drain your urine. It is inserted through your back or flank. Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (or nephrolithotomy) is the passing of a special medical instrument through your skin into your kidney. This is done to remove kidney stones.
Ureteroscopy (URS) is a form of minimally invasive surgery using a small telescope that is passed through the urethra and into the ureter to remove a stone. Often the stone requires fragmentation with a laser which then allows the smaller fragments to removed with a grasping device.
A penile prosthesis is another treatment option for men with erectile dysfunction (ED). These devices are either malleable or inflatable. The simplest type of prosthesis consists of a pair of malleable (bendable) rods surgically implanted within the erection chambers of the penis.
Radical cystectomy is the removal of the entire bladder, nearby lymph nodes (lymphadenectomy), part of the urethra, and nearby organs that may contain cancer cells. In men , the prostate, the seminal vesicles, and part of the vas deferens are also removed.
Radical prostatectomy is an operation to remove the prostate gland and tissues surrounding it. This usually includes the seminal vesicles and some nearby lymph nodes. Radical prostatectomy can cure prostate cancer in men whose cancer is limited to the prostate.
Vascular Medicine 3 procedures
This is a medical imaging modality that is used to view the lumen or inside of organs and vessels in the body with a special interest in veins, arteries, and chambers of the heart. It helps reveal areas of blockage or areas with pathology. They include arteriogram, venograms, CT angiography, MR angiography. Examples microangiography, coronary angiography, etc.
Sometimes referred to as percutaneous transluminal Angioplasty or balloon Angioplasty.it is a minimally y invasive procedure that is done to widen obstructed or narrowed veins and arteries typically to manage atherosclerosis. A balloon catheter is passed over a guided wire to the narrowed vessel which is then inflated. A stent is sometimes inserted during the ballooning phase to ensure that the vessel will remain open after the balloon is deflated and removed. It has several used, i.e., Coronary Angioplasty, carotid Angioplasty and Peripheral Angioplasty.
Aortic Arch Surgery
It a complex cardiothoracic operation done to manage aortic arch aneurysms. The procedure is often needed once the aneurism enlarges to a certain size, or when there is aortic dissection or when it ruptures. During the surgery, concomitant repair of other defects in the heart can be performed e.g. coronary artery blockage.
Diagnostic Imaging 4 procedures
This is a type of medical ultrasonography that is used to visualize anatomical structures of the abdomen. It uses the reflection and transmission of sound waves to visualize internal organs of the body via the wall of the abdomen.
Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD)
This is a test used to assess the health of ones. It helps provides information regarding the fragility or strength of one's bones. The test measures the amount of calcium and other minerals
This a radiograph of the chest used to diagnose chest diseases injuries. It is done using an X-ray machine that passes X-rays through the chest into a film to create the image.
CT Scan (Computed Tomography)
This is a modern imaging technique that makes use of that makes use of computed processed X-ray measurements that are taken at different angles to produce tomographic images of specific areas of objects scanned thereby allowing the user to see the internal structure of the object without physically cutting them. It is used in the diagnosis, screening or prevention of diseases.
General Medicine 2 procedures
Deep Wound Treatment
A deep wound is one that cuts deeper than a quarter an inch beneath the skin surface. Due to their depth, this wound is likely to involve damage to tendons, major blood vessels, ligaments or internal organs. This can lead to both external and internal bleeding. These wounds require urgent treatment to avoid complications like shock. The bleeding has to be arrested, then cl4ned and properly dressed. Antibiotics and tetanus vaccine must be administered to the patient.
This is the administration of a vaccine to a person to stimulate their immune system thereby developing adaptive immunity against the target pathogen.
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine 7 procedures
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Treatment
COPD is a lung disease that encompasses chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The condition is incurable, but treatment can help. It is thus a lifelong disease. Treatment starts with smoking cessation. Drugs such as bronchodilators, steroids, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, theophylline, and antibiotics are used. Lung therapies include oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation. Surgical solutions available included lung transplant, bullectomy, and lung volume reduction surgeries.
Cystic Fibrosis Treatment
Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary condition that causes damage to the digestive system, lungs and other parts of the human body. It commonly affects the cell that produces sweat, digestive juices, and mucus. Though currently, it has no cure, the conditions can be controlled to prevent complication and improved the patient quality of life. Specialists in cystic fibrosis will prepare a comprehensive treatment plan for the patient. Medications commonly used include antibiotics, the medications that make mucus thinner, ivacaftor, bronchodilators, and steroids. The patient is also taught maneuvers on how to deal with the condition.
This is an interventional procedure that is done to diagnose pathologies of the lungs by obtaining samples that are then examined in histology or cytology under a microscope.
This is an endoscopic procedure done to visualize the inside of the airways for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. The endoscopic instrument is inserted into the airways via either the nose or mouth and sometimes via a tracheostomy.
Tuberculosis (TB) Treatment
TB can either be pulmonary or exra-pulmonary. Treatment of TB is done in two phases it the intensive phase and the continuation phase. The intensive phase is usually a two months period of treatment with rifampicin, ethambutol, isoniazid and pyrazinamide. The continuation phase is usually a seven to eighteen months of treatment with rifampicin and isoniazid. The duration of the continuation phases is dependent of result of sensitivity tests and immune status of patient including comorbidities.
This is a surgical operation to remove a lung. It is commonly used in the management of lung cancers. Two types of the procedure are available i.e. extra-pleural Pneumonectomy and simple Pneumonectomy.
A lung transplant is a useful treatment for respiratory disease that has curtailed the lung function severely. In such patients, a lung transplant can increase longevity and also help improve quality of life. However, lung transplant surgery is a complex procedure needing cutting edge facility and care. Severe, end-stage lung disease is a strong indication for a lung transplant. The procedure should be considered when all other treatment modalities have failed and also in people whose lung disease is so severe that they can no longer live and breathe comfortably.
Cosmetology 2 procedures
Laser Hair Removal
This is the process of removing unwanted hair by exposing them to a beam of pulses of light that will destroy the hair follicles. The intense heat of the laser will damage these hair follicle inhibiting any future growth.
Skin Tightening Treatment
These is a minimally invasive cosmetic procedure that is done to tighten sagging or loose skin and reduce appearance of wrinkles in one’s neck, face and body. Laser skin tightening uses heat energy to stimulate elastin and collagen reduction in deeper layers of the skin thereby gradually improving the skin texture and tone.
Specialists working with The Saint-Michel Clinic (Elsan)
DR. GILLES ROLLET Vascular Medicine
- He is a vascular surgeon.
DR. GILLES FILLIARD Ophthalmology
- Former Assistant Head of Clinic at HIA Ste Anne in Toulon Army Hospitals Specialist Former Head of Service.
- Ophthalmology Special Studies Graduate Graduate of Refractive Surgery and Cataract Graduate of Orbito-Lacrymo-Palpébral Surgery
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